Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanestropical depressiontropical cyclonestropical stormstropicaltropical lowcyclonescyclone
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.wikipedia
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Typhoon

typhoonsWestern PacificPacific typhoon
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.

Storm

stormswindstormtempest
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
It may be marked by significant disruptions and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation (snowstorm, rainstorm), heavy freezing rain (ice storm), strong winds (tropical cyclone, windstorm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere as in a dust storm, blizzard, sandstorm, etc.

Tropical cyclogenesis

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Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water.
Tropical cyclogenesis is the development and strengthening of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere.

Thunderstorm

thunderstormssevere thunderstormelectrical storm
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
Mesoscale convective systems formed by favorable vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes.

Low-pressure area

area of low pressurelow pressure arealow pressure
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
When a convective low acquires a well-hot circulation in the tropics it is termed a tropical cyclone.

Storm surge

storm tidetidal surgestorm surges
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves (due to winds), storm surges (due to wind and severe pressure changes), and the potential of spawning tornadoes.
A storm surge, storm flood, tidal surge or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones).

Wind shear

windshearvertical wind shearshear
Tropical cyclones are almost unknown in the South Atlantic due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone. Wind shear must be low; when wind shear is high, the convection and circulation in the cyclone will be disrupted.
Strong vertical wind shear within the troposphere also inhibits tropical cyclone development, but helps to organize individual thunderstorms into longer life cycles which can then produce severe weather.

Central dense overcast

canopy of cirrus cloudscentral area of thunderstormscompact core
In a weaker storm, the eye may be obscured by the central dense overcast, which is the upper-level cirrus shield that is associated with a concentrated area of strong thunderstorm activity near the center of a tropical cyclone.
The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall.

European windstorm

European windstorm nameswindstormstorm
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts.
They rank as the second highest cause of global natural catastrophe insurance loss (after U.S. hurricanes).

Cirrus cloud

cirruscirrus cloudsCirriform
Once aloft, air flows away from the storm's center, producing a shield of cirrus clouds.
It also forms from the outflow of tropical cyclones or the anvils of cumulonimbus clouds.

Nor'easter

nor’easternor'eastersnortheaster
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts.
The storm then reaches Arctic areas, and can reach intensities equal to that of a weak hurricane.

Radius of outermost closed isobar

outermost closed isobarROCI
The most common metrics include the radius of maximum wind, the radius of 34-knot wind (i.e. gale force), the radius of outermost closed isobar (ROCI), and the radius of vanishing wind.
The radius of outermost closed isobar (ROCI) is one of the quantities used to determine the size of a tropical cyclone.

Squall

squallsmesolowrainbands
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
Squalls are sometimes associated with hurricanes or other cyclones, but they can also occur independently.

Beaufort scale

gale forcehurricane-forcegale-force
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls.
However, forces 13 to 17 were intended to apply only to special cases, such as tropical cyclones.

Rainband

banding featuresouter bandsrainbands
Outer rainbands can organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward, which is believed to rob the primary eyewall of moisture and angular momentum.
Tropical cyclone rainbands contain showers and thunderstorms that, together with the eyewall and the eye, constitute a hurricane or tropical storm.

Tornado

tornadoestornadicwedge tornado
Coastal damage may be caused by strong winds and rain, high waves (due to winds), storm surges (due to wind and severe pressure changes), and the potential of spawning tornadoes.
There is mounting evidence, including Doppler on Wheels mobile radar images and eyewitness accounts, that most tornadoes have a clear, calm center with extremely low pressure, akin to the eye of tropical cyclones.

African easterly jet

African easterly jetsAfrican easterly waves
Also, the African easterly jet and areas of atmospheric instability which give rise to cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, along with the Asian monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool, are features of the Northern Hemisphere and Australia.
Convective complexes associated with these waves can form tropical cyclones.

Secondary circulation

fluid motion on a rotating sphere
The three-dimensional wind field in a tropical cyclone can be separated into two components: a "primary circulation" and a "secondary circulation".
For example, a tropical cyclone's primary winds are tangential (horizontally swirling), but their evolution and maintenance against friction involves an in-up-out flow that is important to its clouds and rain.

Radius of maximum wind

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This radius is typically coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, and has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm; consequently, it is known as the radius of maximum winds.
The highest rainfall rates occur near the RMW of tropical cyclones.

Cyclone

cyclonescycloniccyclonic storm
The result is a vertical structure characterized by a strong cyclone at low levels and a strong anti-cyclone near the tropopause; from thermal wind balance, this corresponds to a system that is warmer at its center than in the surrounding environment at all altitudes (i.e. "warm-core").
Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale.

Cyclonic Niño

increased tropical cyclone activityinfluencing ocean heat transportpotential effects
Conversely, the mixing of the sea can result in heat being inserted in deeper waters, with potential effects on global climate.
Cyclonic Niño is a climatological phenomenon that has been observed in climate models where tropical cyclone activity is increased.

Saffir–Simpson scale

Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scaleSaffir-Simpson Hurricane ScaleSaffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale
On March 26, 2004, Hurricane Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic cyclone, striking southern Brazil with winds equivalent to Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones – that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

Atlantic Ocean

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A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
Hurricanes are hazard in the western parts of the North Atlantic during the summer and autumn.

Convection

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Wind shear must be low; when wind shear is high, the convection and circulation in the cyclone will be disrupted.
Fluid movement during convection may be invisibly slow, or it may be obvious and rapid, as in a hurricane.

Anticyclone

anticyclonicanti-cycloneanticyclones
The result is a vertical structure characterized by a strong cyclone at low levels and a strong anti-cyclone near the tropopause; from thermal wind balance, this corresponds to a system that is warmer at its center than in the surrounding environment at all altitudes (i.e. "warm-core"). Usually, an anticyclone in the upper layers of the troposphere above the storm must be present as well—for extremely low surface pressures to develop, air must be rising very rapidly in the eyewall of the storm, and an upper-level anticyclone helps channel this air away from the cyclone efficiently.
Anticyclones aloft can form within warm core lows such as tropical cyclones, due to descending cool air from the backside of upper troughs such as polar highs, or from large scale sinking such as the subtropical ridge.