A report on Tropical rainforest

An area of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth.
Location of tropical (dark green) and temperate/subtropical (light green) rainforests in the world.
Tropical rainforest climate zones (Af).
Amazon River rain forest in Peru
Hillawe Falls in the Hawaiian tropical rainforests in the United States
Daintree "rainforest" in Queensland is actually a seasonal tropical forest.
Western lowland gorilla
The canopy at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia
Artificial tropical rainforest in Barcelona
Young orangutan at Bukit Lawang, Sumatra
Members of an uncontacted tribe encountered in the Brazilian state of Acre in 2009
Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in 2014
Canopy walkway for seeing the diverse tropical forest in Costa Rica
Loss of primary (old-growth) forest in the tropics has continued its upward trend, with fire-related losses contributing an increasing portion.
The Ok Tedi Mine in southwestern Papua New Guinea
An area of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth.

No dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.

- Tropical rainforest
An area of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth.

23 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Location of tropical (dark green) and temperate/subtropical (light green) rainforests in the world.

Rainforest

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Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy, moisture-dependent vegetation, the presence of epiphytes and lianas and the absence of wildfire.

Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy, moisture-dependent vegetation, the presence of epiphytes and lianas and the absence of wildfire.

Location of tropical (dark green) and temperate/subtropical (light green) rainforests in the world.
Worldwide tropical rainforest climate zones.
General distribution of temperate rainforests
Temperate rainforest in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve in Canada
The canopy at the Forest Research Institute Malaysia showing crown shyness
Rainforest in the Blue Mountains, Australia
Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest, taken from a plane.
Satellite photograph of the haze above Borneo and Sumatra, 24 September 2015
View of the temperate rain forest in Mount Revelstoke National Park, British Columbia, Canada
A Kermode bear from the Great Bear Rainforest, Canada
A Bengal tiger in Mudumalai National Park, India
A jaguar in the Amazon Rainforest, South America
Western lowland gorilla in the African rainforest
Yellow anacondas reside in the Amazon basin
Lion-tailed macaque in Silent Valley National Park, India
A Macaw in the Amazon rainforest

Rainforest can be classified as tropical rainforest or temperate rainforest, but other types have been described.

Deforestation in New Zealand.

Deforestation

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Removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use.

Removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use.

Deforestation in New Zealand.
Satellite image of deforestation in progress in eastern Bolivia. Worldwide, 10% of wilderness areas were lost between 1990 and 2015.
Forest Landscape Integrity Index showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest.
Annual deforestation
Annual change in forest area
Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil's Maranhão state, 2016
The amount of globally needed agricultural land would be reduced by three quarters if the entire population adopted a vegan diet.
Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation by region, 2000–2010, from FAO publication The State of the World's Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people – In brief.
Drivers of tropical deforestration
The last batch of sawnwood from the peat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palm plantation.
Illegal gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru.
Biophysical mechanisms by which forests influence climate.
Per capita CO2 emissions from deforestation for food production
Illegal "slash-and-burn" practice in Madagascar, 2010
Mean annual carbon loss from tropical deforestation.
Fires on Borneo and Sumatra, 2006. People use slash-and-burn deforestation to clear land for agriculture.
Deforestation of the Highland Plateau in Madagascar has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers.
Deforestation in France.
Illegal logging in Madagascar. In 2009, the vast majority of the illegally obtained rosewood was exported to China.
A satellite image showing deforestation for a palm oil plantation in Malaysia
An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, ax heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
Easter Island, deforested. According to Jared Diamond: "Among past societies faced with the prospect of ruinous deforestation, Easter Island and Mangareva chiefs succumbed to their immediate concerns, but Tokugawa shoguns, Inca emperors, New Guinea highlanders, and 16th century German landowners adopted a long view and reafforested."
Deforestation of Brazil's Atlantic Forest c.1820–1825
Deforestation in Suriname c.1880–1900
Tropical deforestation in 1750-2004 (net loss)
Deforestation in Venezuela for cattle breeding.
Satellite image of Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic (right) shows the amount of deforestation on the Haitian side
Deforestation around Pakke Tiger Reserve, India
Satellite imagery of locations of the 2019 Amazon rainforest wildfires as detected by MODIS from August 15 to August 22, 2019
Deforestation in Ecuador.
An incomplete concept of a framework of policy mix sequencing for zero-deforestation governance. Non-intervention in processes related to beef production via policies may be a main driver of tropical deforestation.
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Agents from IBAMA, Brazil's environmental police, searching for illegal logging activity in Indigenous territory in the Amazon rainforest, 2018
Bamboo is advocated as a more sustainable alternative for cutting down wood for fuel.
Deforestation in Germany.
Timelapse of recent deforestation of the Amazon rainforest
U.S. Army Huey helicopter spraying Agent Orange during the Vietnam War

The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests.

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), a deciduous broad-leaved (angiosperm) tree

Tree

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Perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves.

Perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves.

Common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), a deciduous broad-leaved (angiosperm) tree
European larch (Larix decidua), a coniferous tree which is also deciduous
Diagram of secondary growth in a eudicot or coniferous tree showing idealised vertical and horizontal sections. A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots.
Tall herbaceous monocotyledonous plants such as banana lack secondary growth, but are trees under the broadest definition.
The Daintree Rainforest
Conifers in the Swabian alps
A young red pine (Pinus resinosa) with spread of roots visible, as a result of soil erosion
Buttress roots of the kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra)
Northern beech (Fagus sylvatica) trunk in autumn
A section of yew (Taxus baccata) showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood
Buds, leaves, flowers and fruit of oak (Quercus robur)
Buds, leaves and reproductive structures of white fir (Abies alba)
Form, leaves and reproductive structures of queen sago (Cycas circinalis)
Dormant Magnolia bud
Wind dispersed seed of elm (Ulmus), ash (Fraxinus) and maple (Acer)
Cracked thorny skin of a Aesculus tree seed
Lepidodendron, an extinct lycophyte tree
Palms and cycads as they might have appeared in the middle Tertiary
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tapped to collect sap for maple syrup
Selling firewood at a market
Roof trusses made from softwood
Trees in art: Weeping Willow, Claude Monet, 1918
Informal upright style of bonsai on a juniper tree
People trees, by Pooktre
Recently stripped cork oak (Quercus suber)
Alleé of London plane trees (Platanus × acerifolia) in garden
Latex collecting from a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
Yggdrasil, the World Ash of Norse mythology
The massive Bronze Sacred Tree (height 396 cm) from Sanxingdui, Shu
The General Sherman Tree, thought to be the world's largest by volume

Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world.

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park)

Forest

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Area of land dominated by trees.

Area of land dominated by trees.

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park)
The Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York form the southernmost part of the Eastern forest-boreal transition ecoregion.
Forest on Mount Dajt, Albania
Share of land that is covered by forest
Forest in the Scottish Highlands
Forest in Kuopio, Finland
Since the 13th century, the Niepołomice Forest in Poland has had special use and protection. In this view from space, different coloration can indicate different functions.
A forest near Vinitsa, North Macedonia
Tywi Forest, Wales
Temperate rainforest in Tasmania's Hellyer Gorge
Even, dense old-growth stand of beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) prepared to be regenerated by their saplings in the understory, in the Brussels part of the Sonian Forest.
Biogradska forest in Montenegro
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation
A dry sclerophyll forest in Sydney, which is dominated by eucalyptus trees.
Proportion and distribution of global forest area by climatic domain, 2020
Broadleaf forest in Bhutan
Taiga forest near Saranpaul in the northeast Ural Mountains, Khanty–Mansia, Russia. Trees include Picea obovata (dominant on right bank), Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica, and Betula pendula.
Redwood tree in northern California redwood forest, where many redwood trees are managed for preservation and longevity, rather than being harvested for wood production
Burned forest on Thasos
Priest River winding through Whitetail Butte with lots of forestry to the east—these lot patterns have existed since the mid-19th century. The white patches reflect areas with younger, smaller trees, where winter snow cover shows up brightly to the astronauts. Dark green-brown squares are parcels
Proportion of forest in protected areas, by region, 2020
Garibaldi Provincial Park, British Columbia
Latvian Pine Forest in Ķegums Municipality

The latitudes 10° north and south of the equator are mostly covered in tropical rainforest, and the latitudes between 53°N and 67°N have boreal forest.

Bates's 1863 The Naturalist on the River Amazons

Amazon rainforest

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Bates's 1863 The Naturalist on the River Amazons
Amazon rainforest in Colombia
Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest, near Manaus
Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest
Amazon rainforest, Peru
Manaus, with 2.2 million inhabitants, is the largest city in the Amazon basin
The Yanomami are a group of approximately 32,000 indigenous people who live in the Amazon rainforest.
Members of an uncontacted tribe encountered in the Brazilian state of Acre in 2009
Scarlet macaw, which is indigenous to the American tropics.
Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest threatens many species of tree frogs, which are very sensitive to environmental changes (pictured: giant leaf frog)
A giant, bundled liana in western Brazil
Home to much of the Amazon rainforest, Brazil's tropical primary (old-growth) forest loss greatly exceeds that of other countries.
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari
Amazon rainforest
A map of uncontacted tribes, around the start of the 21st century
Guiana Amazonian Park in French Guiana
This image reveals how the forest and the atmosphere interact to create a uniform layer of "popcorn-shaped" cumulus clouds.
Hoatzin
Mygalomorphae
Howler monkey
Heliconia
Brown-throated sloth
Emperor tamarin
Blue poison dart frog
South American jaguar is an apex predator in the Amazon Rainforest
Bald uakari
Bullet ants have an extremely painful sting
Parrots at clay lick in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador
Green anaconda
Black caiman
NASA satellite observation of deforestation in the Mato Grosso state of Brazil. The transformation from forest to farm is evident by the paler square shaped areas under development.
Fires and deforestation in the state of Rondônia
One consequence of forest clearing in the Amazon: thick smoke that hangs over the forest
Impact of deforestation on natural habitat of trees
Anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases broken down by sector for the year 2000.
Aerosols over the Amazon each September for four burning seasons (2005 through 2008). The aerosol scale (yellow to dark reddish-brown) indicates the relative amount of particles that absorb sunlight.
Aerial roots of red mangrove on an Amazonian river.
Climate change disturbances of rainforests.<ref name="10.3389/ffgc.2021.618401"/>

The Amazon rainforest, alternatively, the Amazon jungle or Amazonia, is a moist broadleaf tropical rainforest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

Distribution of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

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Tropical and subtropical forest habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature.

Tropical and subtropical forest habitat type defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature.

Distribution of tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests
Moist broadleaf forest in Mudumalai National Park
Tropical and subtropical moist forests (TSMF) as shown within the Holdridge Life Zones classification scheme, and includes moist forests, wet forests, and rainforests.
Painting of the manigua in Colombia, oil on canvas.

Lowland equatorial evergreen rain forests, commonly known as tropical rainforests, are forests which receive high rainfall (tropical rainforest climate with more than 2000 mm, or 80 inches, annually) throughout the year. These forests occur in a belt around the equator, with the largest areas in the Amazon basin of South America, the Congo basin of central Africa, the Wet Tropics of Queensland in Australia and parts of the Malay Archipelago. About half of the world's tropical rainforests are in the South American countries of Brazil and Peru. Rainforests now cover less than 6% of Earth's land surface. Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world's plant and animal species live in tropical rainforests.

The canopy of a forest in Sabah, Malaysia

Canopy (biology)

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Aboveground portion of a plant cropping or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.

Aboveground portion of a plant cropping or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.

The canopy of a forest in Sabah, Malaysia
Canopy of tropical evergreen forest, Andaman Islands
Canopy layers of primary tropical forest, Thailand
Macrocystis pyrifera – giant kelp – forming the canopy of a kelp forest
Bamboo canopy in the Western Ghats of India
A monkey-ladder vine canopy over a road

The highest terrestrial biodiversity resides in the canopy of tropical rainforests.

Leopard

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One of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the cat family, Felidae.

One of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the cat family, Felidae.

Mounted skeleton
A melanistic leopard or black panther
Map showing approximate distribution of leopard subspecies
Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper cladogram is based on the 2006 and 2009 studies, while the lower is based on the 2010 and 2011 studies.
A leopard climbing down a tree
A lioness steals a leopard kill in Kruger National Park
Leopard head to hip ornament from the Court of Benin
Animal trainer with leopard

The black leopard is common foremost in tropical and subtropical moist forests like the equatorial rainforest of the Malay Peninsula and the tropical rainforest on the slopes of some African mountains such as Mount Kenya.

A, B, and C represent the soil profile, a notation firstly coined by Vasily Dokuchaev (1846–1903), the father of pedology. Here, A is the topsoil; B is a regolith; C is a saprolite (a less-weathered regolith); the bottom-most layer represents the bedrock.

Soil

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Mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

Mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

A, B, and C represent the soil profile, a notation firstly coined by Vasily Dokuchaev (1846–1903), the father of pedology. Here, A is the topsoil; B is a regolith; C is a saprolite (a less-weathered regolith); the bottom-most layer represents the bedrock.
Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till in Northern Ireland
Soil profile: Darkened topsoil and reddish subsoil layers are typical of humid subtropical climate regions.
Desertification
Erosion control

Most of the soil's CEC occurs on clay and humus colloids, and the lack of those in hot, humid, wet climates (e.g. tropical rainforests), due to leaching and decomposition, respectively, explains the apparent sterility of tropical soils.

Medicine chest (idiom)

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Colloquial phrase and idiom used to describe an area with the highest concentration of medicine stockpile, production, or potential of sources for medicines.

Colloquial phrase and idiom used to describe an area with the highest concentration of medicine stockpile, production, or potential of sources for medicines.

In nature, tropical rainforests are considered the world's medicine chest or world's largest pharmacy as 25% of Western pharmaceuticals are derived from ingredients found in tropical rainforests.