Troponin

troponin complexTroponin testcardiac troponinscardiac muscle troponin Tcardiac TroponincTnTtesttroponin C
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.wikipedia
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Troponin I

cTnI
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. Certain subtypes of troponin (cardiac I and T) are sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).
It is a part of the troponin protein complex, where it binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the actin-tropomyosin complex in place.

Troponin T

Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. Certain subtypes of troponin (cardiac I and T) are sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).
Troponin T is a part of the troponin complex, which are proteins integral to the contraction of skeletal and heart muscles.

Troponin C

Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.
Troponin C is a part of the troponin complex.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Assays of cardiac-specific troponins I and T are extensively used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in the management of myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.
Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.

Skeletal muscle

skeletal musclesskeletalmuscle
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.
In addition to the actin and myosin components that constitute the sarcomere, skeletal muscle fibers also contain two other important regulatory proteins, troponin and tropomyosin, that are necessary for muscle contraction to occur.

Cardiac marker

cardiac enzymescardiac biomarkersAbnormal serum enzyme levels
Certain subtypes of troponin (cardiac I and T) are sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).

Actin

F-actinG-actinactin cytoskeleton
Troponin is attached to the protein tropomyosin and lies within the groove between actin filaments in muscle tissue.
There are other protein molecules bound to the tropomyosin thread, these are the troponins that have three polymers: troponin I, troponin T, and troponin C.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Certain subtypes of troponin (cardiac I and T) are sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).
These are mostly associated with muscle contraction, and bind with actin, myosin, tropomyosin, and troponin.

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesheart attack. Acute Coronary Syndrome
Assays of cardiac-specific troponins I and T are extensively used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in the management of myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome. They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.
As it is only one of the many potential causes of chest pain, the patient usually has a number of tests in the emergency department, such as a chest X-ray, blood tests (including myocardial markers such as troponin I or T, and H-FABP and/or a D-dimer if a pulmonary embolism is suspected), and telemetry (monitoring of the heart rhythm).

Myocarditis

Acute myocarditisinflammation of the heartviral myocarditis
They can rise in inflammatory conditions such as myocarditis and pericarditis with heart muscle involvement (which is then termed myopericarditis).
A diagnosis may be supported by an electrocardiogram (ECG), increased troponin, heart MRI, and occasionally a heart biopsy.

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle. Certain subtypes of troponin (cardiac I and T) are sensitive and specific indicators of damage to the heart muscle (myocardium).
There are two kinds of myofilaments, thick filaments composed of the protein myosin, and thin filaments composed of the proteins actin, troponin and tropomyosin.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.
In hospitalized patients with unstable angina (or the newer term of "high-risk acute coronary syndromes"), those with resting ischaemic ECG changes or those with raised cardiac enzymes such as troponin may undergo coronary angiography directly.

Creatine kinase

creatine phosphokinaseCPKCK
Critical levels of other cardiac biomarkers are also relevant, such as creatine kinase.
It used to be determined specifically in patients with chest pain but this test has been replaced by troponin.

Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.

Sepsis

septicaemiablood poisoningseptic
Troponins are increased in around 40% of patients with critical illnesses such as sepsis.

Pericarditis

Chronic adhesive pericarditisChronic constrictive pericarditisinflammation around the heart
They can rise in inflammatory conditions such as myocarditis and pericarditis with heart muscle involvement (which is then termed myopericarditis).
Generally however, laboratory values are normal, but if there is a concurrent myocardial infarction (heart attack) or great stress to the heart, laboratory values may show increased cardiac markers like Troponin (I, T), CK-MB, Myoglobin, and LDH1 (lactase dehydrogenase isotype 1).

Anthracycline

anthracyclinesantracyclineanthracyclic chemotherapy
Chemotherapy agents can exert toxic effects on the heart (examples include anthracycline, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin).
Cardiac injury that occurs in response to initial doses of anthracycline can be detected by a rise in troponin level immediately after administration.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary embolipulmonary emboluspulmonary thrombosis
In both primary pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), right ventricular strain with increased wall tension and ischemia.
Troponin levels are increased in between 16–47% with pulmonary embolism.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
Troponins are also increased in rhabdomyolysis.
Other markers of muscle damage, such as aldolase, troponin, carbonic anhydrase type 3 and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), are mainly used in chronic muscle diseases.

Marathon

marathon racemarathon runnermen's marathon
Strenuous endurance exercise such as marathons or triathlons can lead to increased troponin levels in up to one-third of subjects, but it is not linked to adverse health effects in these competitors.
A 2006 study of non-elite Boston Marathon participants tested runners for certain proteins that indicate heart damage or dysfunction (see Troponin) and gave them echocardiogram scans, before and after the marathon.

Regulation of gene expression

gene regulationregulationregulatory
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.

Muscle contraction

contractionmuscular contractionexcitation-contraction coupling
Troponin, or the troponin complex, is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.

Diagnosis

diagnosticdiagnosticsdiagnose
Blood troponin levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for stroke, although the sensitivity of this assay is low.

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Blood troponin levels may be used as a diagnostic marker for stroke, although the sensitivity of this assay is low.