Truth

truetheory of truthtruth theorytruthsveracityassentassertscertaintyCoherence Theorydouble truth
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.wikipedia
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Falsity

falsefalsehoodfalsehoods
Truth is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also suggest a logical, factual, or ethical meaning.
Falsity (from Latin falsitas) or vonkwo gist is a perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and culminating in the damage of another party.

Principle of bivalence

bivalenttwo-valued logicbinary logic
Truth is usually held to be opposite to falsehood, which, correspondingly, can also suggest a logical, factual, or ethical meaning.
In logic, the semantic principle (or law) of bivalence states that every declarative sentence expressing a proposition (of a theory under inspection) has exactly one truth value, either true or false.

Criteria of truth

criterion of truth
The method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth.
Understanding a philosophy's criteria of truth is fundamental to a clear evaluation of that philosophy.

Veritas

AletheiaNuda VeritasRoman goddess
To express "factuality", North Germanic opted for nouns derived from sanna "to assert, affirm", while continental West Germanic (German and Dutch) opted for continuations of wâra "faith, trust, pact" (cognate to Slavic věra "(religious) faith", but influenced by Latin verus). Romance languages use terms following the Latin veritas, while the Greek aletheia, Russian pravda and South Slavic istina have separate etymological origins.
In Roman mythology, Veritas, meaning truth, is the goddess of truth, a daughter of Chronos, the God of Time (who has been identified with Saturn-Cronus, perhaps first by Plutarch), and the mother of Virtus.

Deflationary theory of truth

deflationarydeflationary semantic theoriesdeflationary theory
More recently developed "deflationary" or "minimalist" theories of truth have emerged as possible alternatives to the most prevalent substantive theories.
In philosophy and logic, a deflationary theory of truth is one of a family of theories that all have in common the claim that assertions of predicate truth of a statement do not attribute a property called "truth" to such a statement.

Correspondence theory of truth

correspondencecorrespondence theorycorrespondence theories of truth
To some, truth is viewed as the correspondence of language or thought to an independent reality, in what is sometimes called the correspondence theory of truth. A classic example of correspondence theory is the statement by the thirteenth century philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas: "Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus" ("Truth is the adequation of things and intellect"), which Aquinas attributed to the ninth century Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli.
In epistemology, the correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.

Fact

factsscientific factaccurate
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Fact is sometimes used synonymously with truth, as distinct from opinions, falsehoods, or matters of taste.

Intellect

intellectuallyintellectual ability
A classic example of correspondence theory is the statement by the thirteenth century philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas: "Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus" ("Truth is the adequation of things and intellect"), which Aquinas attributed to the ninth century Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli.
Intellect is a term used in studies of the human mind, and refers to the ability of the mind to come to correct conclusions about what is true or real, and about how to solve problems.

Absolute (philosophy)

Absolutethe Absoluteultimate reality
There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define, identify, and distinguish truth; what roles do faith and empirical knowledge play; and whether truth can be subjective or is objective: relative truth versus absolute truth.
Arcesilaus — the unknown and possibly unknowable Aletheia/Truth

Subjectivity

subjectivesubjectivelysubjectivities
There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define, identify, and distinguish truth; what roles do faith and empirical knowledge play; and whether truth can be subjective or is objective: relative truth versus absolute truth.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

Troth

Like troth, it is a -th nominalisation of the adjective true (Old English tréowe).
An alternate form of truth, especially in the medieval sense

Alfred Tarski

TarskiTarski, AlfredTarskian
Among the philosophers who grappled with this problem is Alfred Tarski, whose semantic theory is summarized further below in this article.
His biographers Anita and Solomon Feferman state that, "Along with his contemporary, Kurt Gödel, he changed the face of logic in the twentieth century, especially through his work on the concept of truth and the theory of models."

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Vico's epistemological orientation gathers the most diverse rays and unfolds in one axiom—verum ipsum factum—"truth itself is constructed".
Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification.

Aletheia

ἀλήθειαAlethiometerAletheia (truth)
To express "factuality", North Germanic opted for nouns derived from sanna "to assert, affirm", while continental West Germanic (German and Dutch) opted for continuations of wâra "faith, trust, pact" (cognate to Slavic věra "(religious) faith", but influenced by Latin verus). Romance languages use terms following the Latin veritas, while the Greek aletheia, Russian pravda and South Slavic istina have separate etymological origins.
It is a Greek word variously translated as "unclosedness", "unconcealedness", "disclosure" or "truth".

Objectivity (philosophy)

objectiveobjectivityobjective reality
There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false; how to define, identify, and distinguish truth; what roles do faith and empirical knowledge play; and whether truth can be subjective or is objective: relative truth versus absolute truth.
His contrasting between objectivity and opinion became the basis for philosophies intent on resolving the questions of reality, truth, and existence.

Fallibilism

falliblefallibilistfallibility
This statement stresses Peirce's view that ideas of approximation, incompleteness, and partiality, what he describes elsewhere as fallibilism and "reference to the future", are essential to a proper conception of truth.
Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

Coherence theory of truth

coherencecoherence theory of truth and knowledgecoherentists
Pragmatism and negative pragmatism are also closely aligned with the coherence theory of truth in that any testing should not be isolated but rather incorporate knowledge from all human endeavors and experience.
In epistemology, the coherence theory of truth regards truth as coherence within some specified set of sentences, propositions or beliefs.

Good faith

bona fidebona fidesgoodwill
The English word true is from Old English (West Saxon) (ge)tríewe, tréowe, cognate to Old Saxon (gi)trûui, Old High German (ga)triuwu (Modern German treu "faithful"), Old Norse tryggr, Gothic triggws, all from a Proto-Germanic *trewwj- "having good faith", perhaps ultimately from PIE *dru- "tree", on the notion of "steadfast as an oak" (e.g., Sanskrit "taru" tree).
In law, bona fides denotes the mental and moral states of honesty and conviction regarding either the truth or the falsity of a proposition, or of a body of opinion; likewise regarding either the rectitude or the depravity of a line of conduct.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
Logic is concerned with the patterns in reason that can help tell us if a proposition is true or not.
Logic (from the ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalisticrationalists
Coherence theories distinguish the thought of rationalist philosophers, particularly of Spinoza, Leibniz, and G.W.F. Hegel, along with the British philosopher F.H. Bradley.
Much of the debate in these fields are focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.

Epistemic theories of truth

epistemic theoriesEpistemic truth
According to a survey of professional philosophers and others on their philosophical views which was carried out in November 2009 (taken by 3226 respondents, including 1803 philosophy faculty members and/or PhDs and 829 philosophy graduate students) 45% of respondents accept or lean towards correspondence theories, 21% accept or lean towards deflationary theories and 14% epistemic theories.
In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyze the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as knowledge, belief, acceptance, verification, justification, and perspective.

Truth predicate

True''(''n'')truth predicates
Thus, some words add an additional parameter to the construction of an accurate truth predicate.
In formal theories of truth, a truth predicate is a fundamental concept based on the sentences of a formal language as interpreted logically.

Crispin Wright

Wright, CrispinC. J. G. Wrightsuperassertibility
Crispin Wright argued in his 1992 book Truth and Objectivity that any predicate which satisfied certain platitudes about truth qualified as a truth predicate.
Crispin James Garth Wright (born 21 December 1942) is a British philosopher, who has written on neo-Fregean (neo-logicist) philosophy of mathematics, Wittgenstein's later philosophy, and on issues related to truth, realism, cognitivism, skepticism, knowledge, and objectivity.

Proposition

propositionspropositionalclaim
Logic is concerned with the patterns in reason that can help tell us if a proposition is true or not.
It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Logic is concerned with the patterns in reason that can help tell us if a proposition is true or not.
For example, reasoning is the means by which rational individuals understand sensory information from their environments, or conceptualize abstract dichotomies such as cause and effect, truth and falsehood, or ideas regarding notions of good or evil.