Truth-bearer

truthbearerprimary bearerstruth bearertruth bearerstruth-bearers
This article is about a term used in philosophy, logic and philosophy of logic.wikipedia
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Proposition

propositionspropositionalclaim
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,
It is used to refer to some or all of the following: the primary bearers of truth-value, the objects of belief and other "propositional attitudes" (i.e., what is believed, doubted, etc.), the referents of that-clauses, and the meanings of declarative sentences.

Statement (logic)

statementsstatement
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,
In either case a statement is viewed as a truth bearer.

Sybil Wolfram

Wolfram
Some distinctions and terminology as used in this article, based on Wolfram 1989

Interpretation (logic)

interpretationintended interpretationinterpretations
In classical logic a sentence in a language is true or false under (and only under) an interpretation and is therefore a truth-bearer.
In many presentations, it is literally a truth value that is assigned, but some presentations assign truthbearers instead.

Entity

entitiesobjectEntity (disambiguation)
A truth-bearer is an entity that is said to be either true or false and nothing else.

Philosophical theory

theoryphilosophical systemphilosophical theories
Since there is divergence of opinion on the matter, the term truth-bearer is used to be neutral among the various theories.

Sentence (mathematical logic)

sentencesentencesclosed formula
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous, In classical logic a sentence in a language is true or false under (and only under) an interpretation and is therefore a truth-bearer.

Belief

beliefsreligious beliefbelief system
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,

Thought

thinkingthoughtsthink
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,

Intuition

intuitiveintuitivelyIntuition (knowledge)
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,

Utterance

utterancesexpressionexpressions
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,

Judgement

judgmentjudgmentsjudging
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous,

Type–token distinction

typestokentype
Truth-bearer candidates include propositions, sentences, sentence-tokens, statements, beliefs, thoughts, intuitions, utterances, and judgements but different authors exclude one or more of these, deny their existence, argue that they are true only in a derivative sense, assert or assume that the terms are synonymous, It should be understood that the terminology described is not always used in the ways set out, and it is introduced solely for the purposes of discussion in this article. Use is made of the type–token and use–mention distinctions.

Explanation

explainrationaleexplanatory
In grammar a sentence can be a declaration, an explanation, a question, a command.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
As Aristotle pointed out, since some sentences are questions, commands, or meaningless, not all can be truth-bearers.

Willard Van Orman Quine

QuineW. V. O. QuineW. V. Quine
Quine argued that the primary truth-bearers are utterances

Logical consequence

entailmententailsfollows from
If all meaningful-declarative-sentence-types typographically identical to "The whole is greater than the part" are true then it surely follows that the meaningful-declarative-sentence-type "The whole is greater than the part" is true (just as all meaningful-declarative-sentence-tokens typographically identical to "The whole is greater than the part" are English entails the meaningful-declarative-sentence-types "The whole is greater than the part" is English) (ii) Some meaningful-declarative-sentences-tokens will be both truth and false, or neither, contrary to our definition of truth-bearer.

Use–mention distinction

the word itselfuse–mentiona mention rather than a use
It should be understood that the terminology described is not always used in the ways set out, and it is introduced solely for the purposes of discussion in this article. Use is made of the type–token and use–mention distinctions.

Classical logic

classicallaws of logicalternative logical systems
In classical logic a sentence in a language is true or false under (and only under) an interpretation and is therefore a truth-bearer.

First-order logic

predicate logicfirst-orderpredicate calculus
For example, a language in the first-order predicate calculus might include one of more predicate symbols and one or more individual constants and one or more variables.

If and only if

iffif, and only ifmaterial equivalence
Under the interpretation I of L then Fa would be true if, and only if Socrates is a man, and the sentence (Fx Gx) would be true if, and only if all men (in the domain) are mortal.

Meaning (philosophy of language)

meaningtheory of meaningIdeational theory of meaning
In some texts an interpretation is said to give "meaning" to the symbols of the language.

Logical truth

necessarily truenecessary truthlogical necessity
Some sentences of a Language like L are said to be true under all interpretations of the sentence, e.g. (Fx Fx), such sentences being termed logical truths, but again such sentences are neither true nor false in the absence of an interpretation.

P. F. Strawson

Peter StrawsonP.F. StrawsonStrawson
A particular concept of a statement was introduced by Strawson in the 1950s.,