Tuition fees in the United Kingdom

tuition feestop-up feesuniversity tuition feesstudent tuition feestuition fees in the UKtuition feetuition fees in Englandvariable tuition fees1998 introduction of tuition feesAbolish university tuition fees
Tuition fees were first introduced across the entire United Kingdom in September 1998 under the Labour government to fund tuition for undergraduate and postgraduate certificate students at universities; students were required to pay up to £1,000 a year for tuition.wikipedia
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Premiership of Tony Blair

Blair governmentLabour governmentBlair
Tuition fees were first introduced across the entire United Kingdom in September 1998 under the Labour government to fund tuition for undergraduate and postgraduate certificate students at universities; students were required to pay up to £1,000 a year for tuition.
He introduced substantial market-based reforms in the education and health sectors; introduced student tuition fees; sought to reduce certain categories of welfare payments, and introduced tough anti-terrorism and identity card legislation.

Teaching and Higher Education Act 1998

Education (Induction Arrangements for School Teachers) (England) Regulations 1999Teaching and Higher Education Act
In response to the findings, the Teaching and Higher Education Act 1998 was published on 26 November 1997, and enacted on 16 July 1998, part of which introduced tuition fees in all the countries of the United Kingdom.
It enabled universities to charge tuition fees, and established statutory General Teaching Councils (GTC's) for England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the modification the remit of the General Teaching Council for Scotland.

Tuition payments

tuitiontuition feestuition fee
Tuition fees were first introduced across the entire United Kingdom in September 1998 under the Labour government to fund tuition for undergraduate and postgraduate certificate students at universities; students were required to pay up to £1,000 a year for tuition.
Tuition fees in the United Kingdom were introduced in 1998, with a maximum permitted fee of £1,000.

2010 United Kingdom student protests

2010 UK student protests2010 student protestsClare Solomon
Following the Browne Review in 2010, the cap was controversially raised to £9,000 a year, sparking large student protests in London.
Largely student-led, the protests were held in opposition to planned spending cuts to further education and an increase of the cap on tuition fees by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government following their review into higher education funding in England.

Browne Review

Browne Reportdecision in 2010independent review
Following the Browne Review in 2010, the cap was controversially raised to £9,000 a year, sparking large student protests in London.
The Parliamentary vote on increasing the maximum tuition fees was held on 9 December 2010, following a week of protests.

Theresa May

MayPrime Ministernew Prime Minister
In February 2018, Prime Minister Theresa May launched a review of post-18 education funding, including university funding and possible alternatives to tuition fees and loans.
On 9 December 2010, in the wake of violent student demonstrations in central London against increases to higher-education tuition fees, May praised the actions of the police in controlling the demonstrations but was described by The Daily Telegraph as "under growing political pressure" due to her handling of the protests.

Countries of the United Kingdom

Constituent countryCountryconstituent countries
In response to the findings, the Teaching and Higher Education Act 1998 was published on 26 November 1997, and enacted on 16 July 1998, part of which introduced tuition fees in all the countries of the United Kingdom.
The official term rest of the UK (RUK or rUK) is used in Scotland, for example in export statistics and in legislating for student funding.

Student Loans Company

student financeStudent loans portfolios
If those who have taken out a student loan do not update their details with the Student Loans Company when receiving a letter or an email to update their employment status, or upon leaving the UK for 3 or more months, start a new job or become self-employed, or stop working, then they can possibly face a higher interest rate on their loan.
From 1998, with the introduction of tuition fees in the UK, the SLC instead began providing loans under an income-contingent repayment (ICR) scheme.

Graduate tax

There have been two main proposed alternative ways of funding university studies: from general taxation or by a graduate tax.
Numerous comparisons have been made of the existing tuition fees system in the UK and its similarities to a graduate tax.

Andrew Adonis, Baron Adonis

Andrew AdonisLord AdonisThe Lord Adonis
In July 2017 Lord Adonis, former Number 10 Policy Unit staffer and education minister largely responsible for introducing tuition fees, said that the system had become a "Frankenstein's monster" putting many students over £50,000 in debt.
As Tony Blair's head of policy, Lord Adonis was regarded as the architect of Tuition fees in the United Kingdom in 2004 – a policy he criticised and disowned 13 years later.

Andy Burnham

Andy Burnham MPAndrew BurnhamAndy
During the 2015 Labour leadership election, Andy Burnham said that he would introduce a graduate tax to replace fees.
Burnham also favours a universal graduate tax to replace student tuition fees, and voted against the most recent increase in fees.

Gillian Shephard

Gillian ShepherdGillian Shephard, Baroness Shephard of NorthwoldBaroness Shephard of Northwold
In May 1996, Gillian Shephard, Secretary of State for Education and Employment, commissioned an inquiry, led by the then Chancellor of the University of Nottingham, Sir Ron Dearing, into the funding of British higher education over the next 20 years.

Ronald Dearing, Baron Dearing

Ronald DearingLord DearingSir Ron Dearing
In May 1996, Gillian Shephard, Secretary of State for Education and Employment, commissioned an inquiry, led by the then Chancellor of the University of Nottingham, Sir Ron Dearing, into the funding of British higher education over the next 20 years.

Dearing Report

National Committee of Inquiry into Higher EducationDearingDearing Committee
This National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education reported to the new Labour Government, in the summer of 1997, stating additional billions of funding would be needed over the period, including £350 million in 1998–99 and £565 million in 1999–2000, in order to expand student enrolment, provide more support for part-time students and ensure an adequate infrastructure.

Philip Augar

The latter, which was launched by Theresa May, is being chaired by Philip Augar.

Brexit

United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Unionleave the European Unionleave
The Scottish government confirmed in April 2019 that, with regards to tuition fees, EU students would be treated the same as Scottish students for their whole course if they begin studies up until 2020, regardless of how Brexit would be enacted.

Rhona Brankin

Labour's education spokesperson Rhona Brankin criticised the Scottish system for failing to address student poverty.

Retail price index

Retail Prices IndexRPIGeneral Index of Retail Prices
In 2012 this rate was set at the retail price index (RPI) plus up to 3% depending on income.

Official bank rate

Bank of England base rateinterest ratesBank rate
Students who started university between 1998 and 2011 pay Bank of England base rate plus 1% or RPI, whichever is lower.

Brexit Party

The Brexit PartyBrexitBREX
In June 2019, the Brexit Party stated it would scrap all interest paid on student tuition fees and has suggested reimbursing graduates for historic interest payments made on their loans.

Jeremy Corbyn

CorbynFionn McGorryCorbynist
Jeremy Corbyn, current Labour leader, has stated that he would remove tuition fees and instead fund higher education by increasing National Insurance and Corporation Tax.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
Jeremy Corbyn, current Labour leader, has stated that he would remove tuition fees and instead fund higher education by increasing National Insurance and Corporation Tax.

Number 10 Policy Unit

Prime Minister's Policy UnitPolicy UnitDowning Street Policy Unit
In July 2017 Lord Adonis, former Number 10 Policy Unit staffer and education minister largely responsible for introducing tuition fees, said that the system had become a "Frankenstein's monster" putting many students over £50,000 in debt.

2015 Labour Party leadership election (UK)

Labour Party leadership election2015 Labour leadership electionLabour leadership election of 2015
During the 2015 Labour leadership election, Andy Burnham said that he would introduce a graduate tax to replace fees.

Timeline of tuition fees in the United Kingdom

From September 2012 the Government reduced its funding for all students residing in England
Since their introduction, the fees have been reformed multiple times by several bills, with the cap on fees notably rising to £9,000 a year for the 2012–13 academic year.