Tumour heterogeneity

heterogeneitytumor heterogeneitycancer cell heterogeneityclonal variantsheterogeneic tumourHeterogeneic tumoursheterogeneoustumorvariation
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.wikipedia
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Neoplasm

tumortumorstumour
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.
Neoplastic tumors are often heterogeneous and contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells.

Cancer stem cell

cancer stem cellsCancerous Stem Cells cancer stem cell hypothesis
These are the cancer stem cell model and the clonal evolution model.
In different tumor subtypes, cells within the tumor population exhibit functional heterogeneity and tumors are formed from cells with various proliferative and differentiation capacities.

Somatic evolution in cancer

driverclonal evolutionsomatic alterations
These are the cancer stem cell model and the clonal evolution model.

DNA repair

DNA damagerepairtranslesion synthesis
Sequentially ordered mutations accumulate in driver genes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repair enzymes, resulting in clonal expansion of tumour cells.
While this constitutes only 0.000165% of the human genome's approximately 6 billion bases (3 billion base pairs), unrepaired lesions in critical genes (such as tumor suppressor genes) can impede a cell's ability to carry out its function and appreciably increase the likelihood of tumor formation and contribute to tumour heterogeneity.

Genome instability

genomic instabilitygenetic instabilitygenetic
The acquisition of mutations is random as a result of increased genomic instability with each successive generation.
The unpredictable nature of these events are also a main contributor to the heterogeneity observed among tumour cells.

Multiple myeloma

myelomabone-marrow cancerbone marrow cancer
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.
This may be attributed to tumor heterogeneity.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
The influence of microenvironment on clonal dominance is also a likely reason for the heterogeneity between primary and metastatic tumours seen in many patients, as well as the inter-tumour heterogeneity observed between patients with the same tumour type.
This uncontrolled proliferation by mitosis produces a primary heterogeneic tumour.

Carcinogenesis

tumorigenesisoncogenesisoncogenic
The cancer stem cell model asserts that within a population of tumour cells, there is only a small subset of cells that are tumourigenic (able to form tumours).
The cancer stem cell hypothesis has been a proposed mechanism that contributes to tumour heterogeneity.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Furthermore, it is possible for genetic variability to be further increased by some cancer therapies (e.g. treatment with temozolomide and other chemotherapy drugs).
Heterogeneic tumours may also display varying sensitivities to chemotherapy agents, depending on the subclonal populations within the tumor.

Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis

animal model system for breast cancermetastatic models
*Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis
This explains the concept of tumour heterogeneity and the order of genetic events during tumor evolution.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

Phenotype

phenotypicphenotypesphenotypically
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

DNA replication

replicationreplication forklagging strand
A minimal level of intra-tumour heterogeneity is a simple consequence of the imperfection of DNA replication: whenever a cell (normal or cancerous) divides, a few mutations are acquired —leading to a diverse population of cancer cells.

Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
A minimal level of intra-tumour heterogeneity is a simple consequence of the imperfection of DNA replication: whenever a cell (normal or cancerous) divides, a few mutations are acquired —leading to a diverse population of cancer cells.

Genetic heterogeneity

heterogeneousheterogeneitygenetic
The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in designing effective treatment strategies.

Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemic
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Colorectal cancer

colon cancerbowel cancerintestinal cancer
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Esophageal cancer

throat canceroesophageal canceresophageal
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Head and neck cancer

throat cancerhead and neckneck cancer
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Bladder cancer

bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Gynecologic oncology

gynaecological cancergynaecologic oncologygynecologic cancer
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.

Liposarcoma

a rare form of cancerpleomorphic liposarcomaretroperitoneal liposarcoma
Tumour heterogeneity has been observed in leukemias, breast, prostate, colon, brain, esophagus, head and neck, bladder and gynecological carcinomas, liposarcoma, and multiple myeloma.