Tundra

tundra climateArctic tundraETarcticBarren Lands(ET)tundrasAlpine tundrapolar tundraAntarctic tundra
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.wikipedia
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Poaceae

grassturfgrass family
Tundra vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens.
Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests and tundra.

Alpine tundra

alpine meadowalpinealpine zone
There are three regions and associated types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra.
As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, and alpine tundra merges with polar tundra.

Lichen

lichensphotobiontexciple
Tundra vegetation is composed of dwarf shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens. Instead, bare and sometimes rocky land can only support certain kinds of Arctic vegetation, low growing plants such as moss, heath (Ericaceae varieties such as crowberry and black bearberry), and lichen.
Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: arctic tundra, hot dry deserts, rocky coasts, and toxic slag heaps.

Biome

biotabiomesmajor habitat type
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

Taiga

boreal forestborealboreal forests
Arctic tundra occurs in the far Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt.
A different use of the term taiga is often encountered in the English language, with "boreal forest" used in the United States and Canada to refer to only the more southerly part of the biome, while "taiga" is used to describe the more barren areas of the northernmost part of the biome approaching the tree line and the tundra biome.

Sápmi

LaplandLapplandSapmi
(It may also refer to the treeless plain in general, so that northern Sápmi would be included.) Permafrost tundra includes vast areas of northern Russia and Canada. The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi).
The extreme northeastern section lies within the tundra region, but it does not have permafrost.

Arctic vegetation

vegetationarcticarctic plants
Instead, bare and sometimes rocky land can only support certain kinds of Arctic vegetation, low growing plants such as moss, heath (Ericaceae varieties such as crowberry and black bearberry), and lichen.
In the Arctic, the low tundra vegetation clothes a landscape of wide vistas, lit by the low-angle light characteristic of high latitudes.

Arctic fox

Alopex lagopusArcticfox
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.

Lemming

Lemmingsbrown lemmingDiscrotonyx torquatus
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
A lemming is a small rodent, usually found in or near the Arctic in tundra biomes.

Muskox

musk oxmusk oxenmuskoxen
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
The modern muskox is the last member of a line of ovibovines that first evolved in temperate regions of Asia and adapted to a cold tundra environment late in its evolutionary history.

Arctic hare

ArcticharesLepus arcticus
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
The Arctic hare is well adapted to conditions found in the tundras, plateaus and treeless coasts of this region, including cold weather and frozen precipitation.

Nganasan people

NganasanNganasansTavgi
The polar tundra is home to several peoples who are mostly nomadic reindeer herders, such as the Nganasan and Nenets in the permafrost area (and the Sami in Sápmi).
The Nganasans are the northernmost ethnic group of the Eurasian continent and the Russian Federation, historically inhabiting the tundra of the Taymyr Peninsula.

Alaska

CityAKAlaskan
In recent times this has begun to change in Alaska, Russia, and some other parts of the world: for example, the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug produces 90% of Russia's natural gas.
The North Slope is mostly tundra peppered with small villages.

Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra

The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion includes the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, the Campbell Island group, and Macquarie Island.
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion, within the Tundra Biome, includes five remote island groups in the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand: the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands and Campbell Island groups of New Zealand, and Macquarie Island of Australia.

Snowy owl

Nyctea scandiacaNycteaBubo scandiacus
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
Snowy owls nest in the Arctic tundra of the northernmost stretches of Alaska, Northern Canada, and Eurasia.

Reindeer

caribouRangifer tarandusRangifer
Notable animals in the Arctic tundra include reindeer (caribou), musk ox, Arctic hare, Arctic fox, snowy owl, lemmings, and even polar bears near the ocean.
While Rangifer is a widespread and numerous genus in the northern Holarctic, being present in both tundra and taiga (boreal forest), by 2013, many herds had "unusually low numbers" and their winter ranges in particular were smaller than they used to be.

Kildin Sámi language

Kildin SamiKildin Sami languageKildin Sámi
The term tundra comes through Russian тундра (tûndra) from the Kildin Sámi word тӯндар (tūndâr) meaning "uplands", "treeless mountain tract".
The word tundra has been borrowed to English, via Russian.

Polar climate

polarArctictundra climate
The cold climate of the alpine tundra is caused by the low air temperatures, and is similar to polar climate.
A polar climate consists of cool summers and very cold winters, which results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice.

Antarctic Peninsula

Palmer PeninsulaMarielandia Antarctic tundraAntarctic
However, some portions of the continent, particularly the Antarctic Peninsula, have areas of rocky soil that support plant life.
The landscape of the peninsula is typical Antarctic tundra.

Köppen climate classification

ClimateKöppenKöppen-Geiger climate classification system
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd, Dwd and Dsd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, parts of Scandinavia, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3 C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America).
Tundra climate (ET): Warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and 10 °C.

Iceland

IcelandicISLRepublic of Iceland
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd, Dwd and Dsd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, parts of Scandinavia, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3 C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America).
Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.

Tree line

timberlinetreelinetimber line
The ecotone (or ecological boundary region) between the tundra and the forest is known as the tree line or timberline.
North of the arctic timberline lies the low-growing tundra, and southwards lies the boreal forest.

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Sandwich IslandsSouth GeorgiaSouth Georgia Islands
Antarctic tundra occurs on Antarctica and on several Antarctic and subantarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands.
The climate is classified as polar, and the weather is highly variable and harsh; making a tundra (ET) in Köppen climate classification.

Magellanic moorland

There is some ambiguity on whether Magellanic moorland, on the west coast of Patagonia, should be considered tundra or not.
It thus may qualify either as polar tundra or heathland.

Kerguelen Islands

KerguelenKerguelen IslandKerguelen Archipelago
Antarctic tundra occurs on Antarctica and on several Antarctic and subantarctic islands, including South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the Kerguelen Islands.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Kerguelen's climate is considered to be an ET or tundra climate, which is technically a form of polar climate, as the average temperature in the warmest month is below 10 C. Comparable climates include the Aleutian Islands, Campbell Island (New Zealand), Falkland Islands, Iceland, northern Kamchatka Peninsula, Labrador and Wollaston Islands.