Tundra

tundra climateArctic tundraETarcticBarren Lands(ET)tundrasAlpine tundrapolar tundraAntarctic tundra
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.wikipedia
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Deschampsia antarctica

Antarctic hair grassAntarctic Hairgrass
Antarctica's two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica) and Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Colobanthus quitensis

Antarctic pearlwortC. quitensis
Antarctica's two flowering plant species, the Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica) and Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), are found on the northern and western parts of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Bounty Islands

BountyBounty IslandBounty Platform
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion includes the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, the Campbell Island group, and Macquarie Island.

Auckland Islands

AucklandLord Auckland's IslandsAucklands
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion includes the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, the Campbell Island group, and Macquarie Island.

Antipodes Islands

Antipodes IslandAntipodesAntipodean Islands
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion includes the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, the Campbell Island group, and Macquarie Island.

Campbell Islands

Campbell Island groupCampbellCampbell's Island
The Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra ecoregion includes the Bounty Islands, Auckland Islands, Antipodes Islands, the Campbell Island group, and Macquarie Island.

Corybas dienemus

Nematoceras dienemum
Species endemic to this ecoregion include Nematoceras dienemum and Nematoceras sulcatum, the only subantarctic orchids; the royal penguin; and the Antipodean albatross.

Corybas sulcatus

Nematoceras sulcatumgrooved helmet-orchid
Species endemic to this ecoregion include Nematoceras dienemum and Nematoceras sulcatum, the only subantarctic orchids; the royal penguin; and the Antipodean albatross.

Royal penguin

Eudyptes schlegeliroyalEudyptes chrysolophus schlegeli
Species endemic to this ecoregion include Nematoceras dienemum and Nematoceras sulcatum, the only subantarctic orchids; the royal penguin; and the Antipodean albatross.

Antipodean albatross

AntipodeanDiomedea antipodensis
Species endemic to this ecoregion include Nematoceras dienemum and Nematoceras sulcatum, the only subantarctic orchids; the royal penguin; and the Antipodean albatross.

Patagonia

PatagonianChilean PatagoniaArgentine Patagonia
There is some ambiguity on whether Magellanic moorland, on the west coast of Patagonia, should be considered tundra or not.

Phytogeography

Phytogeographicallyphytogeographerphytogeographical
Phytogeographer Edmundo Pisano called it tundra (tundra Magallánica) since he considered the low temperatures key to restrict plant growth.

Edmundo Pisano

Phytogeographer Edmundo Pisano called it tundra (tundra Magallánica) since he considered the low temperatures key to restrict plant growth.

Krummholz

flag treekrummholtzflag-trees
Alpine tundra transitions to subalpine forests below the tree line; stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone (the treeline) are known as Krummholz.

Forb

forbsbroadleaf weedsflowering plants
The flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by plants that grow close to the ground, including perennial grasses, sedges, forbs, cushion plants, mosses, and lichens.

Cushion plant

cushioncushionscushion plants
The flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by plants that grow close to the ground, including perennial grasses, sedges, forbs, cushion plants, mosses, and lichens.

Ice cap

ice-cappedice capsice dome
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd, Dwd and Dsd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, parts of Scandinavia, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3 C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America).

Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd, Dwd and Dsd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, parts of Scandinavia, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3 C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America).

European Russia

Central Russiawestern RussiaEuropean part
Tundra climates ordinarily fit the Köppen climate classification ET, signifying a local climate in which at least one month has an average temperature high enough to melt snow (0 C), but no month with an average temperature in excess of 10 C. The cold limit generally meets the EF climates of permanent ice and snows; the warm-summer limit generally corresponds with the poleward or altitudinal limit of trees, where they grade into the subarctic climates designated Dfd, Dwd and Dsd (extreme winters as in parts of Siberia), Dfc typical in Alaska, Canada, parts of Scandinavia, European Russia, and Western Siberia (cold winters with months of freezing), or even Cfc (no month colder than -3 C as in parts of Iceland and southernmost South America).

Vapor pressure

vapour pressuresaturation vapor pressureequilibrium vapor pressure
Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the low vapor pressure of water in the chilly atmosphere, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes.

Evapotranspiration

potential evapotranspirationevaporationevapotranspired
Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the low vapor pressure of water in the chilly atmosphere, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes.

Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian

French Southern and Antarctic Lands

French Southern TerritoriesFrench Southern and Antarctic TerritoriesFrench territory