A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
West Thrace Republic, Turks in Kardzali
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara in the 1950s
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Turkish people at the 2007 Republic Protests in the capital city of Ankara supporting the principle of state secularism.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Percentage of Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria by Province (2011)
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Turkish Meskhetians wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
An Iraqi Turkmen girl in traditional Turkish costume.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population). With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin, the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introducing the modern Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri in 1928.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The flag of the Centar Župa Municipality in North Macedonia is labelled with Macedonian and Turkish writing in its central banner.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq.
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, is an example of Ottoman imperial architecture.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
The Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca, Cyprus, is an example of Ottoman provincial architecture. As the resting place of Umm Haram, it is one of the holiest sites in Islam and an important pilgrimage site for the largely secular Turkish Cypriot community.
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
The neo-Ottoman Cologne Central Mosque in Cologne is the largest mosque in Germany, and mostly serves the Turkish German community.
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
The neo-Ottoman Westermoskee in Amsterdam is the largest mosque in the Netherlands, and mostly serves the Turkish Dutch community.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

The Turkish people, or simply the Turks (Türkler), are the world's largest Turkic ethnic group; they speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

- Turkish people

Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority.

- Turkey

29 related topics

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Ottoman Empire

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun

The successful Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies, led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Byzantine (Roman) state and that in essence, the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a Turkish Muslim guise.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries.

Istanbul

Column of Constantine
This large keystone might have belonged to a triumphal arch at the Forum of Constantine (present-day Çemberlitaş).
The construction of the Aqueduct of Valens began during the reign of the Roman emperor Constantius II and was completed in 373 during the reign of emperor Valens.
The map of Istanbul by Matrakçı Nasuh during the 16th century
View of the Golden Horn and the Seraglio Point from Galata Tower
A view of Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in the late 1920s. Completed in 1892, the Ottoman Central Bank headquarters is seen at left. In 1995 the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to İstinye, while numerous Turkish banks have moved to Levent and Maslak.
Satellite view of Istanbul and the strait of Bosporus
Microclimates of Istanbul according to Köppen–Geiger classification system
'Müze Gazhane' in Kadıköy serves as the first climate change museum in Turkey.
A view of Levent from Kanlıca across the Bosphorus
Originally outside the city, yalı residences along the Bosphorus are now homes in some of Istanbul's elite neighborhoods.
A view of Taksim Square with the Republic Monument (1928) designed by Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica and Taksim Mosque
Çırağan Palace (1867) briefly served as the Ottoman Parliament building between 14 November 1909 and 19 January 1910, when it was damaged by fire. It was restored between 1987 and 1992 and was reopened as a five-star hotel in the Kempinski Hotels chain.
Galata Tower dominates the skyline of the medieval Genoese citadel at the north of the Golden Horn.
Sultan Ahmed Mosque is known as the Blue Mosque due to the blue İznik tiles which adorn its interior. The Obelisk of Thutmose III (Obelisk of Theodosius) is seen in the foreground.
A view of Topkapı Palace, the inner core of which was built in 1459–1465, from across the Golden Horn, with the Prince Islands in the background
Istanbul's districts extend far from the city center, along the full length of the Bosphorus (with the Black Sea at the top and the Sea of Marmara at the bottom of the map).
Statue of Atatürk in Büyükada, the largest of the Prince Islands to the southeast of Istanbul, which collectively form the Adalar (Isles) district of Istanbul Province
Syrian nationals in districts of Istanbul
Built by Suleiman the Magnificent, the Süleymaniye Mosque (1550–1557) was designed by his chief architect Mimar Sinan, the most illustrious of all Ottoman architects.
There are 234 active churches in the city, including the Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the district of Beyoğlu (Pera).
Ekrem İmamoğlu of the CHP is the 32nd and current Mayor of Istanbul, elected in 2019.
A view of Levent financial district from Istanbul Sapphire. Levent, Maslak, Şişli and Ataşehir are the main business districts in the city.
Deutsche Orientbank AG (1906) in Sirkeci
Ottoman Central Bank Head Office (1892) on Bankalar Caddesi
Yalı houses on the Bosporus are among the frequently used settings in Turkish television dramas (dizi).
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums, founded by Osman Hamdi Bey in 1891, form Turkey's oldest modern museum.
Pera Museum in Beyoğlu
Around three million people visit İstiklal Avenue on weekend days
Süreyya Opera House
Zorlu Center, designed by EAA and Tabanlıoğlu Architects
Küçük Çamlıca TV Radio Tower (369 m) is the tallest structure in the city.
Main entrance gate of Istanbul University, the city's oldest Turkish institution, established in 1453.
Maçka campus of Istanbul Technical University (1773)
The Silahtarağa Power Station, now the art museum SantralIstanbul, was Istanbul's sole source of power between 1914 and 1952.
The Grand Post Office in Sirkeci, Istanbul, was designed by Vedat Tek in the Turkish neoclassical style of the early 20th century.
Originally opened in 1873 with a smaller terminal building as the main terminus of the Rumelia (Balkan) Railway of the Ottoman Empire, which connected Istanbul with Vienna, the current Sirkeci Terminal building was constructed between 1888 and 1890, and became the eastern terminus of the Orient Express from Paris.
Atatürk Arboretum is an arboretum and city forest located in Bahçeköy, Sarıyer.
Street cats in the city

Istanbul (, ; İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople, is the largest city in Turkey, serving as the country's economic, cultural and historic hub.

The dominant ethnic group in the city is Turkish people, which also forms the majority group in Turkey.

Atatürk in 1930

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Atatürk in 1930
The house where Atatürk was born in the Ottoman city of Salonika (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), now a museum
The reconstructed house of Atatürk's paternal grandparents, in the Ottoman village of Kocacık (Kodžadžik in present-day North Macedonia)
Atatürk on the day of graduation from the War Academy in 1905
Atatürk (front row, second from left) with the Ottoman Turkish observers at the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, 28 September 1910
Atatürk (left) with an Ottoman military officer and Bedouin forces in Derna, Tripolitania Vilayet, 1912
Cevat Pasha and Atatürk on the daily Tasvîr-i Efkâr dated 29 October 1915
Atatürk with Ottoman military officers during the Battle of Gallipoli, Çanakkale, 1915
Atatürk in 1918, the Commander of the Yıldırım Army Group and an Honorary aide-de-camp of the Sultan
Atatürk (right) in Angora (Ankara) with İsmet Pasha (left)
Prominent nationalists at the Sivas Congress, left to right: Muzaffer (Kılıç), Rauf (Orbay), Bekir Sami (Kunduh), Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk), Ruşen Eşref (Ünaydın), Cemil Cahit (Toydemir), Cevat Abbas (Gürer)
Atatürk inspects the Turkish troops on 18 June 1922
A British cartoon of 1923 satirising Atatürk's rule in Turkey
Atatürk at the opening ceremony of the Samsun-Çarşamba railroad (1928)
Atatürk in 1923, with members of the Mevlevi Order, before its institutional expression became illegal and their dervish lodge was changed into the Mevlana Museum. The Mevlevi Order managed to transform itself into a non-political organization which still exists.
In 1924, during his speech in Bursa
Atatürk during the Republic Day celebrations on the second anniversary of the Turkish Republic, 29 October 1925.
Atatürk with his Panama hat just after the Kastamonu speech in 1925
Atatürk is greeted by marines in Büyükada (14 July 1927)
Atatürk at the 1927 opening of the State Art and Sculpture Museum
Atatürk at the library of the Çankaya Presidential Residence in Ankara, on 16 July 1929
Atatürk attending a class at the Law School of the Istanbul House of Multiple Sciences in 1930
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri on 20 September 1928
In 1930, leaving the parliament after the 7th-year celebration meeting.
Atatürk with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar and his daughter in Yalova, on 13 August 1930
In 1931, during the establishment ceremony of the Turkish History Institution. Atatürk is standing with Afet İnan (on his left) and Yusuf Akçura (first from the left).
Atatürk at the opening of the Türkkuşu flight school in Etimesgut on 3 May 1935
259x259px
Atatürk with King Amānullāh Khān of Afghanistan in Ankara, 1928. King Amānullāh attempted to emulate many of Atatürk's reforms in Afghanistan, but was overthrown.
Atatürk with King Faisal I of Iraq in Ankara, 1931
During a reception at the USSR Embassy in Ankara, on 7 November 1927
Exchanges on the concept of a Balkan Federation during the visit of Voroshilov, a vision of Atatürk's which was never achieved
Atatürk (center) hosting the Greek Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (at the left) in Ankara, October 1930
Atatürk (right) with Reza Shah Pahlavi (left) of Iran, during the Shah's visit to Turkey
Atatürk observes the Turkish troops during the military exercise on 28 May 1936
During the visit of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in 1931
Atatürk with Greek Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas (second from right) at the Balkan Pact summit in Ankara, March 1938
Telegram sent by Atatürk after the local legislative assembly accepted his proposal for the Hatay State's flag
Atatürk and Celâl Bayar visiting the Sümerbank Nazilli Cotton Factory, which was established as a part of the cotton-related industry
Atatürk supported large-scale government subsidized industrial complexes, such as Sümerbank, increasingly after the Great Depression.
Atatürk and İsmet İnönü at Nazilli Cotton Factory (1937)
Kemal Atatürk and his wife Latife Uşakizâde during a trip to Bursa, 1924
A view from the state funeral of Atatürk, November 1938
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on October 29.
Associated Press news article about the admiration of women from different parts of the world for Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the handsome leader of the Turkish Republic.
Atatürk memorial on Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City
Statue of Atatürk in Ankara

Kemal Atatürk (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha until 1934, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; c. undefined 1881 – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938.

His father Ali Rıza is thought to have been of Albanian origin by some authors; however, according to Falih Rıfkı Atay, Vamık D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, Müjgân Cunbur, Numan Kartal and Hasan İzzettin Dinamo, Ali Rıza's ancestors were Turks, ultimately descending from Söke in the Aydın Province of Anatolia.

Anatolia

Large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum, c. 20,000 years ago. Anatolia was connected to the European mainland until c. 5600 BCE, when the melting ice sheets caused the sea level in the Mediterranean to rise around 120 m,  triggering the formation of the Turkish Straits.   As a result, two former lakes (the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) were connected to the Mediterranean Sea, which separated Anatolia from Europe.
Göbeklitepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC.
The Sphinx Gate at Hattusha
The Sebasteion of Aphrodisias of Caria
Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia.
Aphrodisias was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 2017
Sanctuary of Commagene Kings on Mount Nemrut (1st century BCE)
Byzantine Anatolia and the Byzantine-Arab frontier zone in the mid-9th century
Salty shores of Lake Tuz.
Mediterranean climate is dominant in Turkish Riviera
Ankara (central Anatolia)
Antalya (southern Anatolia)
Van (eastern Anatolia)

It constitutes the major part of modern-day Turkey.

Among the Turkish leaders, the Ottomans emerged as great power under Osman I and his son Orhan I.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920

Levant

Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920
1909 postcard depicting Ottoman Constantinople and bearing a French stamp inscribed "Levant"
Satellite view of the Levant including Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan and the Northern Sinai
Prince from Lebanon and Muslim from Damascus, late 19th century
Map representing the distribution of the Arabic dialects in the area of the Levant

In its narrowest sense, which is in use today in archaeology and other cultural contexts, it is equivalent to a stretch of land bordering the Mediterranean in southwestern Asia, i.e. the historical region of Syria ("greater Syria"), which includes present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey southwest of the middle Euphrates.

There are also Circassians, Turks, Samaritans, and Nawars.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority

Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The Turkic peoples are a collection of diverse ethnic groups of Central, East, North, South and West Asia as well as parts of Europe, who speak Turkic languages.

The countries and autonomous regions where a Turkic language has official status or is spoken by a majority
The distribution of the Turkic languages
Map from Kashgari's Diwan (11th century), showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
A page from "Codex Kumanicus". The Codex was designed in order to help Catholic missionaries communicate with the Kumans.
Descriptive map of Turkic peoples.
Eastern Hemisphere in 500 BCE
Genetic, archeologic and linguistic evidence links the early Turkic peoples to the "Northeast Asian gene pool". Proto-Turks are suggested to have adopted a nomadic lifestyle and expanded from eastern Mongolia westwards.
Xiongnu, Mongolic, and proto-Turkic tribes (ca. 300 CE)
Territory of the Xiongnu, which included Mongolia, Western Manchuria, Xinjiang, East Kazakhstan, East Kyrgyzstan, Inner Mongolia, and Gansu.
Huns (c.450 CE)
First Turk Khaganate (600 CE)
The Eastern and Western Turkic Khaganates (600 CE)
Colored terracotta figurine of a Gokturk male found in a Kurgan, Kazakhstan, 5th-6th c.
A Turkic warrior from the Göktürk period. The horse's tail is knotted in Turkic style. His hair is long, braided and his big-collared caftan and boots are Turkic clothing features.
The migration of the Bulgars after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century
Golden Horde
Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur painting from the Bezeklik murals
Old Uyghur Princes from the Bezeklik murals.
The Turkic Later Tang Dynasty
Kangar Union after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate, 659–750
Oghuz Yabgu State (c.750 CE)
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 CE
A map showing the Seljuk Empire at its height, upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran.
Map of the Timurid Empire at its greatest extent under Timur.
Silver dirham of AH 329 (940/941 CE), with the names of Caliph al-Muttaqi and Amir al-umara Bajkam (de facto ruler of the country)
Independent Turkic states shown in red
Map of TÜRKSOY members.
Bashkirs, painting from 1812, Paris
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
Circle dance of Shamans 1911
An Old Uyghur Khagan
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia (6th to 8th century)
A Penjikent man dressed in “Turkic“ long coats, 6th-8th c.
Kyz kuu.
Turk vassal blacksmiths under Mongolian rule
Turkic hunting scene, Gokturk period Altai
Battle scene of a Turkic horseman with typical long hair (Gokturk period, Altai)
Old Uyghur king from Turfan, from the murals at the Dunhuang Mogao Caves.
Old Uyghur prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur woman from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Princess.
Old Uyghur Princesses from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Prince from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur noble from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Elect depicted on a temple banner from Qocho.
Old Uyghur donor from the Bezeklik murals.
Old Uyghur Manichaean Electae from Qocho.
Old Uyghur Manichaean clergymen from Qocho.
Fresco of Palm Sunday from Qocho.
Manicheans from Qocho
Khan Omurtag of Bulgaria, from the Chronicle of John Skylitzes.
Ghaznavid portrait, Palace of Lashkari Bazar.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Schlumberger |first1=Daniel |title=Le Palais ghaznévide de Lashkari Bazar |journal=Syria |date=1952 |volume=29 |issue=3/4 |page=263 & 267|doi=10.3406/syria.1952.4789 |jstor=4390312 |url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/4390312 |issn=0039-7946}}</ref>
Azerbaijani girls in traditional dress.
Gagauz women and man.
Bashkir boys in national dress.
A Chuvash girl in traditional dress.
Khakas people with traditional instruments.
Nogai man in national costume.
Turkish girls in their traditional clothes, Dursunbey, Balikesir Province.
Turkmen girl in national dress.
Tuvan men and women in Kyzyl, Tuva.
Kazakh man in traditional clothing.
Uzbek with traditional cuisine.
Kyrgyz traditional eagle hunter.
Tuvan traditional shaman.
Yakut Sakha family in traditional attire.

Some of the most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include the Turkish people, Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Uyghurs, Turkmens, Tatars, Kyrgyz people and Yakuts.

In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds specifically to the "Turkish-speaking" people (in this context, "Turkish-speaking" is considered the same as "Turkic-speaking"), while the term Türki refers generally to the people of modern "Turkic Republics" (Türki Cumhuriyetler or Türk Cumhuriyetleri).

Syria

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
Ishqi-Mari, king of the Second Kingdom of Mari, circa 2300 BC.
Amrit Phoenician Temple
Ancient city of Palmyra before the war
Roman Theatre at Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria
Temple of Jupiter, Damascus
The ancient city of Apamea, an important commercial center and one of Syria's most prosperous cities in classical antiquity
Umayyad fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.
Syrian women, 1683
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria labelled as "Al Sham" in yellow
Armenian deportees near Aleppo during the Armenian genocide, 1915
The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s
Aleppo in 1961
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
Military situation in the Lebanese Civil War, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria
A Syrian Army soldier manning a checkpoint outside of Damascus shortly after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, 2012
Diplomatic missions of Syria
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Syria, since 1820
Aleppo soap
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010
A cove in Latakia in 2014
Oil refinery in Homs
Expressway M5 near Al-Rastan
Damascus, traditional clothing
The ethno-religious composition of Syria
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery in Saidnaya, Rif Dimashq
Damascus University headquarters in Baramkeh
UIS adult literacy rate of Syria
Dabke combines circle dance and line dancing and is widely performed at weddings and other joyous occasions.
Adunis
Aleppo International Stadium
Fattoush, a Syrian bread salad

It is a unitary republic that consists of 14 governorates (subdivisions), and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east and southeast, Jordan to the south, and Israel and Lebanon to the southwest.

In order to facilitate this, a faulty election was done in which ethnic Turks who were originally from the Sanjak but lived in Adana and other areas near the border in Turkey came to vote in the elections, shifting the election in favor of secession.

Cyprus

Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian Peninsula.

Island country in the eastern Mediterranean Sea south of the Anatolian Peninsula.

A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Dhekelia Power Station
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Supreme Court of Justice
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Central Bank of Cyprus
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Limassol General Hospital
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
2010 population by age and gender
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Cypriot meze
Cypriot Halloumi
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964.

Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.

Ankara

Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.
Alaca Höyük bronze standard on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.
Alaca Höyük bronze standards is a pre-Hittite tomb dating to the third millennium BC. It is considered the symbol of the city still today.
The Dying Galatian was a famous statue commissioned some time between 230 and 220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BC, at the Capitoline Museums, Rome.
Ancyra was the capital of the Celtic kingdom of Galatia, and later of the Roman province with the same name, after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC.
Marble head of a Roman woman on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara.
The Res Gestae Divi Augusti is the self-laudatory autobiography completed in 13 AD, just before his death, by the first Roman emperor Augustus. Most of the text is preserved on the walls of the Monumentum Ancyranum.
The Roman Baths of Ankara were constructed by the Roman emperor Caracalla (212–217) in honor of Asclepios, the God of Medicine, and built around three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) and the frigidarium (cold bath) in a typically laid-out 80 x classical complex.
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St. Theodotus of Ancyra
Ottoman houses in Hamamönü district
President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (center) and Prime Minister İsmet İnönü (left) leaving the Grand National Assembly of Turkey during the 7th anniversary celebrations of the Turkish Republic in 1930.
A view of the old general directorate building of Ziraat Bank. It was designed by Istanbul-born Italian Levantine architect Giulio Mongeri and built between 1926 and 1929.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Presidential Palace of Turkey is located inside the Atatürk Forest Farm
Söğütözü business and shopping district
YDA Center in Söğütözü, Ankara
Soğuksu National Park
Ankara metropolitan area
Ankara railway station is a hub for conventional trains.
The new ATG terminal is a hub for the high-speed rail (YHT) services.
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Mansur Yavaş of the CHP is the Mayor of Ankara, elected in 2019.
Ankara castle and citadel
At the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) in Ulus, the primary intact copy of Res Gestae written by the first Roman emperor Augustus survives.
Roman Baths of Ankara
Hacı Bayram Mosque (1428)
Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum courtyard has been covered with a glass roof.
Armada Shopping Mall
Atakule Shopping Mall
Ankara Opera House of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet (1933)
The historic Evkaf Apartment (1929) is the headquarters of the Turkish State Theatres. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro and Oda Tiyatrosu.
Ethnography Museum of Ankara
The Presidential Library is the largest library in Turkey, with a collection of over four million books.
Atatürk's Mausoleum. It is the most popular sight of Ankara.
State Art and Sculpture Museum
The War of Independence Museum, used as the first Turkish Grand National Assembly building
Ankara Arena (2010)
Gençlik Parkı (Youth Park)
Göksu Park
Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras
Angora goat
Angora rabbit

Ankara, is the capital of Turkey.

The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire and finally republican Turkey).