A report on Turkey

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

- Turkey

614 related topics with Alpha



24 links

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds

It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

The location of the Aegean Sea

Aegean Sea

15 links

Elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia.

Elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea between Europe and Asia.

The location of the Aegean Sea
The extent of the Aegean Sea on a map of the Mediterranean Sea
A panoramic view of the Santorini caldera, taken from Oia.
A traditional street in Lefkes, Paros-Greece.
Climate map of Greece. Most of the landmass surrounding the Aegean sea is classified as Csa, with the northern region being BSk.
Female figure from Naxos (2800-2300 BC)
A fleet of Athenian trireme
Library of Celsus, a Roman structure in important sea port Ephesus
Emirate of Crete, after early conquest of Arabs
A 1528 map of the Aegean Sea by Turkish geographer Piri Reis
German Tanks in Rhodes during the WW2
House of Cleopatra on Delos
Walls of Troy
The town of Mykonos, part of the Cyclades
Tourists in the town of Mykonos, part of the Cyclades

The Ottoman Empire held a presence over the sea for over 500 years, until it was replaced by modern Turkey.

Portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini, dating 1480

Mehmed II

11 links

Mehmed II (II.

Mehmed II (II.

Portrait of Mehmed II by Gentile Bellini, dating 1480
Accession of Mehmed II in Edirne, 1451
The Ottoman Empire at the beginning of Mehmed II's second reign.
Roumeli Hissar Castle, built by Sultan Mehmed II between 1451 and 1452, before the Fall of Constantinople
The entry of Sultan Mehmed II into Constantinople, painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
Ottoman miniature of the Siege of Belgrade, 1456
15th century portrait of Mehmet II (1432-1481), showing Italian influence
Portrait of Vlad (Dracula) the Impaler, Prince of Wallachia, 1460
The Night Attack of Târgovişte, which resulted in the victory of Vlad (Dracula) the Impaler.
Mehmed II's ahidnâme to the Catholic monks of the recently conquered Bosnia issued in 1463, granting them full religious freedom and protection.
Scene depicts the fifth and greatest assault upon the Shkodra Castle by Ottoman forces in the Siege of Shkodra, 1478–79
Mehmed the Second, portrait by Paolo Veronese
Portrait of Skanderbeg, prince of League of Lezhë
A bronze medal of Mehmed II the Conqueror by Bertoldo di Giovanni, 1480
Portrait of Mehmed an unknown person believed to be his son Cem or Ishak Bey Kraloğlu, 1481.
Historical photo of Fatih Mosque, built by order of Sultan Mehmed II in Constantinople, the first imperial mosque built in the city after the Ottoman conquest.
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror with patriarch Gennadius II depicted on an 18th-century mosaic
Medal of Mehmet II, with mention "Emperor of Byzantium" ("Byzantii Imperatoris 1481"), made by Costanzo da Ferrara (1450-1524).
Portrait of Mehmed, by Nakkaş Sinan Bey (Topkapı Palace albums)
The territorial extent of the Ottoman Empire upon the death of Mehmed II.
The tomb of Mehmed II (d. 1481) in Fatih, Istanbul
Mehmed II on the backside of 1,000 Turkish lira dating 1986.

He is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world.

Map of Turkey in 1927 which was published before the alphabet reform

Atatürk's reforms

10 links

Map of Turkey in 1927 which was published before the alphabet reform
Abolition of the Caliphate, The Last Caliph, Le Petit Journal illustré, 16 March 1924
"The Sheep of Ankara, shows its hand last." by Sedat Simavi, in Istanbul magazine Güleryüz on October 1922.
Atatürk speaking with a civilian in 1931.
Atatürk with his top hat
Canadian political cartoon of a woman in Quebec reading a sign that reads:
"News bulletin: for the first time in Turkish history women will vote and be eligible to the public office in the general election which takes place this week."
Women were granted the right to vote in Turkey in 1930, but the right to vote was not extended to women in provincial elections in Quebec until 1940.
An Ottoman trial in 1877
Ottoman Turkish alphabet and 1930s modern Turkish alphabet guide, from the Republic Museum, Ankara

Atatürk's Reforms were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes, designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state, implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with the Kemalist ideology.

Partition of the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Sèvres and the Greco-Italian Treaty

Treaty of Sèvres

14 links

1920 treaty signed between the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire.

1920 treaty signed between the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire.

Partition of the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Sèvres and the Greco-Italian Treaty
The Ottoman delegation at Sèvres comprising the three signatories of the treaty. Left to right: Rıza Tevfik Bölükbaşı, Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha, the Ottoman education minister Mehmed Hâdî Pasha and ambassador Reşad Halis.
Mehmed Hâdî Pasha signs the Treaty of Sèvres.
The expansion of Greece from 1832 to 1947 showing in yellow territories awarded to Greece by the Treaty of Sèvres but lost in 1923
1920 map of Western Turkey, showing the Zone of the Straits in the Treaty of Sèvres
The First Republic of Armenia, with the western borders defined by US President Woodrow Wilson

The 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres, ended the conflict and saw the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.

Illustration of the registration of Christian boys for the devşirme. Ottoman miniature painting, 1558. )


9 links

Turkification, Turkization, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), describes a shift whereby populations or places received or adopted Turkic attributes like culture, language, history, or ethnicity.

Turkification, Turkization, or Turkicization (Türkleştirme), describes a shift whereby populations or places received or adopted Turkic attributes like culture, language, history, or ethnicity.

Illustration of the registration of Christian boys for the devşirme. Ottoman miniature painting, 1558. )

However, often this term is more narrowly applied to mean specifically Turkish rather than merely Turkic, therefore referring to the Ottoman Empire, and the Turkish nationalist policies of the Republic of Turkey toward ethnic minorities in Turkey.

Close-up topographic map of the Dardanelles


17 links

Close-up topographic map of the Dardanelles
Map showing the location of the Dardanelles (yellow), relative to the Bosporus (red), the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea, and the Black Sea
View of the Dardanelles taken from the Landsat 7 satellite in September 2006. The body of water on the left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two seas, from the northeast to the southwest. The long, narrow upper peninsula on the northern shores of the strait is Gallipoli (Gelibolu), and constitutes the banks of the continent of Europe, while the lower peninsula is Troad (Biga) and constitutes the banks of the continent of Asia. The city of Çanakkale is visible along the shores of the lower peninsula, centered at the only point where a sharp outcropping juts into the otherwise-linear Dardanelles.
An artist's illustration depicting Xerxes' alleged "punishment" of the Hellespont
1554 map of the Dardanelles in Belon's Observations
1915 Landing of French troops in Moudros (Lemnos island) during the Gallipoli Campaign
Landing at Gallipoli in April 1915
Anzac Cove
The Sphinx overlooking Anzac Cove
The Çanakkale 1915 Bridge on the Dardanelles strait, connecting Europe and Asia, is the longest suspension bridge in the world.
Marble plate with 6th century AD Byzantine law regulating payment of customs in the Dardanelles
Historic map of the Dardanelles by Piri Reis
The ANZACs at Gallipoli in 1915
Map of the Dardanelles drawn by G. F. Morrell, 1915, showing the Gallipoli peninsula and the west coast of Turkey, as well as the location of front line troops and landings during the Gallipoli Campaign
A view of the Dardanelles from Gallipoli peninsula
A view of Çanakkale from the Dardanelles
Ferry line across the Dardanelles in Çanakkale
Aerial view of the city of Çanakkale
Dardanelles in 2021

The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, Δαρδανέλλια), also known as the Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont, is a narrow, natural strait and internationally significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Asia and Europe and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.

A ballot paper and envelope used in the referendum. 'Evet' translates to Yes while 'Hayır' translates to No.

2017 Turkish constitutional referendum

7 links

A ballot paper and envelope used in the referendum. 'Evet' translates to Yes while 'Hayır' translates to No.
The AKP presenting their constitutional proposals to Parliament Speaker İsmail Kahraman, December 2016
The Parliamentary Constitutional Commission scrutinising the proposed changes
MHP MPs Özcan Yeniçeri, Ümit Özdağ and Yusuf Halaçoğlu announcing their opposition to the proposed constitutional changes
The AKP 'Yes' campaign logo. Kararımız evet translates to 'Our decision is yes'
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan campaigning for a 'Yes' vote in Kahramanmaraş, 17 February 2017
CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu addressing a 'No' rally in Diyarbakır
Foreign minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu making a statement following the cancellation of campaign events in Germany
Pro-'Yes' protests outside the Dutch embassy in Turkey following the Dutch–Turkish diplomatic crisis
Referendum results by province, shaded by vote share

A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).

The surrender of Jerusalem to the British on 9 December 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem

Partition of the Ottoman Empire

8 links

Geopolitical event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

Geopolitical event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

The surrender of Jerusalem to the British on 9 December 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem
Greek proposal to Paris Peace Conference
Greece according to the Treaty of Sèvres
the Wilsonian Armenia according to the Treaty of Sèvres

The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the domination of the Middle East by Western powers such as Britain and France, and saw the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey.

Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.

Ottoman dynasty

8 links

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) consisted of the members of the imperial House of Osman, also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) consisted of the members of the imperial House of Osman, also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.
Ottoman Imperial Standard, Late 19th and early 20th Century.
Rukiye Sabiha Sultan’s wedding day in 1920, left to right: Fatma Ulviye Sultan, Ayşe Hatice Hayriye Dürrüşehvar Sultan, Emine Nazikeda Kadınefendi, Rukiye Sabiha Sultan, Mehmed Ertuğrul Efendi, Şehsuvar Hanımefendi.
Ottoman Ceremonial Barbering Cape (detail), early 18th century, Turkey. LACMA textile collection.
Sultans of the Ottoman Dynasty.

The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year.