A report on Turkey

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

- Turkey

614 related topics with Alpha


The Library of Celsus in Ephesos


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The Library of Celsus in Ephesos
Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of Selçuk, near Ephesus.
Street scene at the archeological excavations at Ephesus.
Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620–600 BC. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch.
Historical map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon, 1888
The Temple of Hadrian
The Theatre of Ephesus with harbour street. Due to ancient and subsequent deforestation, overgrazing (mostly by goat herds), erosion and soil degradation the Turkey coastline is now 3 - 4 km away from the ancient Greek site with sediments filling the plain and the Mediterranean Sea. In the background: muddy remains of the former harbour, bare hill ridges without rich soils and woods, a maquis shrubland remaining.
Stone carving of the goddess Nike
The 'terrace houses' at Ephesus, showing how the wealthy lived during the Roman period. Eventually the harbour became silted up, and the city lost its natural resources.
The İsa Bey Mosque constructed in 1374–75, is one of the oldest and most impressive remains from the Anatolian beyliks.
The Preaching of Saint Paul at Ephesus, Eustache Le Sueur, 1649
House of the Virgin Mary
The Gate of Augustus in Ephesus was built to honor the Emperor Augustus and his family.
Library of Celsus, side view
Aqueduct near Ephesus – Mayer Luigi – 1810
Tomb of John the Apostle at the Basilica of St. John.
Image of Ephesus on the reverse of the 20 new lira banknote (2005–2008)

Ephesus (Efes; may ultimately derive from ) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, 3 km southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

Hattian Metalwork-Vessels.


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Hattian Metalwork-Vessels.
Figures from Alacahöyük.
Linguistic homeland of Hattian language in central Anatolia
The Storm-God, represented by a bull; Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara

The Hattians were an ancient Bronze Age people that inhabited the land of Hatti, in central Anatolia (modern Turkey).

Middle East

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Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and Southern Asia.
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
The Kaaba, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are prostrating during prayer in a mosque.
Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates
Amman – Jordan
Ankara – Turkey
Baghdad, Iraq
Beirut – Lebanon
Cairo – Egypt
Damascus – Syria
Doha – Qatar
Dubai – United Arab Emirates
Istanbul – Turkey
Jerusalem – Israel
Kuwait City – Kuwait
Manama – Bahrain
Mecca – Saudi Arabia
Muscat – Oman
Nicosia – Cyprus
Ramallah – Palestine
Sana'a – Yemen
Tehran – Iran
Tel Aviv – Israel
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia. The site of the oldest known man-made religious structure.
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish (in Arabic script), Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian, and French.

The Middle East (الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233: ash-Sharq al-Awsat) is a geopolitical term that commonly refers to the region spanning Arabia (including the Arabian Peninsula and Bahrain), Asia Minor (Asian part of Turkey except Hatay Province), East Thrace (European part of Turkey), Egypt, Iran, the Levant (including Ash-Shām and Cyprus), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), and the Socotra Archipelago (a part of Yemen).

Turkish Airlines

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THY Fokker F27 Friendship landing at Athens Hellenikon Airport in 1973.
THY Douglas DC-10 in 1974 wearing the airline's initial colour scheme.
A Boeing 707 operated by Turkish Airlines at Heathrow Airport in 1984.
Turkish Airlines Boeing 737 at Zurich Airport in 1995.
A Turkish Airlines Boeing 777-300ER with the FC Barcelona colours in 2012; the airline was the official sponsor and carrier of the club between 2010 and 2013.
A Turkish Airlines Boeing 737-800 in 2010 FIBA World Championship livery at Istanbul Atatürk Airport.
Istanbul Atatürk Airport, November 2013.
A Turkish Airlines Airbus A321-200 in Turkish Airlines Euroleague livery. The airline has been the primary sponsor of the top European basketball league since 2010.
A Turkish Airlines Boeing 777-300ER landing at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport.
A Boeing 737 MAX 8 of Turkish Airlines on final approach for Istanbul Atatürk Airport.
Miles & Smiles logo.
Turkish Airlines also sponsored Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund.
Turkish Airlines A330, decorated with UEFA Euro 2016 emblems.
Turkish Airlines Boeing 737-800 in Star Alliance livery
Turkish Airlines Airbus A321neo
Turkish Airlines Boeing 777-300ER
Turkish Airlines Boeing 787-9
The Airbus A350 is the newest addition to fleet

Turkish Airlines (Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003

Caspian Sea

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World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

Turkey (extreme north-eastern parts)

Indo-European migrations as described in The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony

Anatolian peoples

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Indo-European migrations as described in The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony
Map 1: Anatolian peoples in 2nd millennium BC; Blue: Luwians, Yellow: Hittites, Red: Palaics.
Map 2: Late Bronze Age regions of Anatolia / Asia Minor (circa 1200 BC) with main settlements.
Sphinx Gate entrance at Hattusa, capital of the Hittite Empire.
Relief of Yariri and Kamani, 8th-century BC Luwian rulers of Carchemish, a Neo-Hittite State (despite the name, Neo-Hittites were overwhelmingly Luwians and not Hittites).
Map 3: Anatolia / Asia Minor in the Greco-Roman period. The classical regions and their main settlements (circa 200 BC).

The Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of the Anatolian Peninsula in present-day Turkey, identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.

Portrait by Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger, 1839

Mahmud II

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Mahmud II (, II.

Mahmud II (, II.

Portrait by Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger, 1839
Abdullah bin Saud.
The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in Islamic calligraphy. It reads "Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is forever victorious".
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt attacks Missolonghi
The mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II during the period of 1860-1890.
Poem in praise of the prophet Muhammad, calligraphed and signed by Mahmud II
Mahmudiye (1829), built by the Imperial Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. The 201 x 56 kadem, or 76.15 x ship of the line was armed with 128 cannons on 3 decks and carried 1,280 sailors on board. She participated in numerous important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.
Internal view of the mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II.
The mausoleum (türbe) of Sultan Mahmud II, located at Divan Yolu street in Çemberlitaş, Eminönü, Istanbul.
The sarcophagus of Sultan Mahmud II in his burial place.
Exterior view of the türbe of Sultan Mahmud II.
Battle of Akhalzic (1828), by January Suchodolski. Oil on canvas, 1839.
Russian forces reach and cause the Siege of Kars (1828), by January Suchodolski.

The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.

The Greek gymnasium of Sardis


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The Greek gymnasium of Sardis
Inside the gymnasium of Sardis.
Map of Sardis and other cities within the Lydian Empire
Sardis in the middle of Lydia, c. 50 AD
Temple of Artemis at Sardis
Remains of the Greek Byzantine shops and the Bath-Gymnasium Complex in Sardis
The gymnasium complex of Sardis
Remains of the Byzantine churches at Sardis
Details of the columns.
Details of the Gymnasium complex.
The Sardis Synagogue
Synagogue of Sardis.
Sardes wall tile with three dimensional effect.

Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤳𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; ; Sfarad) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005), near Salihli, in Turkey's Manisa Province.

The Bosphorus (red), the Dardanelles (yellow), and the Sea of Marmara in between, are known collectively as the Turkish Straits

Turkish Straits

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The Bosphorus (red), the Dardanelles (yellow), and the Sea of Marmara in between, are known collectively as the Turkish Straits
Satellite image of the Bosphorus, taken from the International Space Station in April 2004. The body of water at the top is the Black Sea, the one at the bottom is the Marmara Sea, and the Bosphorus is the winding vertical waterway that connects the two. The western banks of the Bosphorus constitute the geographic starting point of the European continent, while the banks to the east are the geographic beginnings of the continent of Asia. The city of Istanbul is visible along both banks.
The 1915 Çanakkale Bridge on the Dardanelles strait, connecting Europe and Asia, is the longest suspension bridge in the world.
View of the Dardanelles, taken from the Landsat 7 satellite in September 2006. The body of water at the upper left is the Aegean Sea, while the one on the upper right is the Sea of Marmara. The long, narrow upper peninsula is Gallipoli (Gelibolu), and constitutes the banks of the continent of Europe, while the lower peninsula is Troad (Biga) and constitutes the banks of the continent of Asia. The Dardanelles is the tapered waterway running diagonally between the two peninsulas, from the northeast to the southwest. The city of Çanakkale is visible along the shores of the lower peninsula, centered at the only point where a sharp outcropping juts into the otherwise-linear Dardanelles.

The Turkish Straits (Türk Boğazları) are two internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey.

The ghost town of Kayaköy (Livisi) in southwestern Anatolia. Once a Greek village, it was abandoned during the 1923 population exchange. Muslims refused to repopulate the place, according to local tradition, because it was "infested with the ghosts of Livisians massacred in 1915".

Population exchange between Greece and Turkey

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The ghost town of Kayaköy (Livisi) in southwestern Anatolia. Once a Greek village, it was abandoned during the 1923 population exchange. Muslims refused to repopulate the place, according to local tradition, because it was "infested with the ghosts of Livisians massacred in 1915".
The minaret of the Tzistarakis Mosque in Athens has been destroyed like many other mosques in Greece. Now the building is used as a Museum of Greek Folk Art.
An official Ottoman document giving the results of the 1914 population census. The total population (sum of all millets) was 20,975,345, of which 1,792,206 Greeks.
Distribution of Anatolian Greeks in 1910:Demotic Greek speakers in yellow, Pontic Greek speakers in orange, and Cappadocian Greek speakers in green. Towns are shown as dots, and cities as squares.
Greek and Armenian refugee children in Athens
Muslim refugees
Map of the settlements where the Megleno-Romanians live today. In Greece, near the border with North Macedonia, can be seen the village of Notia. The vast majority of the population of this village was sent to Turkey following the population exchange, and nowadays, they form a community of around 5,000 people in Turkey.
Greek population in Istanbul and percentages of the city population (1844–1997). Pogroms and policies in Turkey led virtually to the exodus of the remaining Greek community.
Declaration of Property during the Greek-Turkish population exchange from Yena (Kaynarca) to Thessaloniki (16 December 1927)
Demographics of Thessaloniki between 1500-1950.

The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή,, Mübadele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.