A report on Turkey

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Topographic map of Turkey
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

Transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe.

- Turkey

614 related topics with Alpha


Sinop, Turkey

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Sinop Palace of Justice.
Sinop teachers residence.
Sinop is the birthplace of the famous Greek philosopher Diogenes.
Coinage of Achaemenid satrap Abrocomas, Sinope, Paphlagonia, circa 400-385 BC.
Statue of Diogenes at Sinop.
North walls of Sinop Fortress.
Alaaddin Mosque.
Sinop old city on an Ottoman era postcard.
Sinop Museum.
Sinop Marina.
Sinop Fortress Ruins.
Sinop Fortress Ruins.

Sinop, historically known as Sinope, is a city on the isthmus of İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), near Cape Sinope (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the northernmost edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey.

NASA Earth Observatory photo of İzmir, taken from the International Space Station on 16 May 2011, highlighting the modern urban landscape of the city.


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Metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the province of the same name.

Metropolitan city in the western extremity of Anatolia, capital of the province of the same name.

NASA Earth Observatory photo of İzmir, taken from the International Space Station on 16 May 2011, highlighting the modern urban landscape of the city.
The ancient city of Ephesus is in the Province of İzmir
Karabel relief of the Luwian local leader "Tarkasnawa, King of Myra" is near Kemalpaşa, a few kilometres to the east of İzmir.
Coinage of Klazomenai, circa 386–301 BC in Urla, slightly outside İzmir urban zone, is associated with some of the oldest known records of trade in olive oil.
Statue of the river god Kaystros with a cornucopia, at the Museum of History and Art, Kültürpark, Izmir.
İzmir Archaeology Museum has exhibits from ancient sites like Bayraklı (ancient Smyrna), Ephesus, Pergamon, Miletus, Aphrodisias, Clazomenae, Teos, and Iasos.
Agora of Smyrna
Head of the poetess Sappho found in ancient Smyrna. Roman marble copy of an original statue from the Hellenistic period, at the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.
Beylik of Aydın in the 14th century
Hisar Mosque (1592–1598) in the Kemeraltı neighbourhood of İzmir.
Old Ottoman houses in Urla, İzmir.
The port of İzmir, from an 1883 encyclopedia.
The St. Stepanos Armenian Church (1863) located in the Basmane district served the Armenian community of İzmir. It was burned during the Great Fire of Smyrna in 1922.
İzmir Chamber of Commerce in Konak
Başdurak Mosque (1652) is located in the Konak district.
St. John's Cathedral (1874) is dedicated to John the Evangelist, who wrote the Book of Revelation and sent the scrolls describing his visions to the Seven churches of Asia, including Smyrna (İzmir).
The Clock Tower is the symbol of the city
Asansör (1907) offers panoramic views of the city
Designed by Gustave Eiffel in 1890, the Konak Pier has numerous shops, cafés and restaurants.
Arkas Art Center in Izmir
A view of Kültürpark in central İzmir
Ahmed Adnan Saygun Arts Center
Skyscrapers in the Bayraklı district of İzmir
İzmir Atatürk Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 51,295, hosted the 1971 Mediterranean Games, the 2005 Summer Universiade and the 2011 European Team Championships, among other track and field events. It is also used by İzmir's football clubs.
Gürsel Aksel Stadium, with a seating capacity of 20,040, is the home of Göztepe S.K. in Konak, İzmir.
Renovated İzmir Alsancak Stadium has a seating capacity of 15,358.
Tunç Soyer of the CHP is the current Mayor of İzmir, elected in 2019.
Circle of Life Memorial
Izmir City Hospital is currently under construction.
Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Education in Buca, Izmir.
Key Museum in Izmir has a collection of 130 automobiles and 40 motorcycles. It is the largest car museum in Turkey.
Adnan Menderes International Airport is the main airport in İzmir.
Alsancak railway station (1858) in İzmir was opened as the terminus of the İzmir–Aydın line, the oldest railway line in Turkey and the second-oldest railway line in the Ottoman Empire after the Cairo–Alexandria line (1856) in the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt.
Basmane railway station (1866)
İzmir Municipality's urban ferry services in the Gulf of İzmir
İzmir Metro has around 173,000 daily passengers.
İZBAN commuter train
A Karşıyaka Tram at Alaybey
View from the top of the Asansör in Izmir
The «Atatürk, His Mother and Women's Rights» monument at Karşıyaka seaside in Izmir, Turkey

It is the third most populous city in Turkey, after Istanbul and Ankara and the second largest urban agglomeration on the Aegean Sea after Athens.

Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 1876 painting by Vasily Surikov

Council of Chalcedon

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The fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church.

The fourth ecumenical council of the Christian Church.

Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon, 1876 painting by Vasily Surikov
Council of Chalcedon
Spectrum of Christological views in late antiquity
Council of Chalcedon in the Nuremberg Chronicle

The council convened in the city of Chalcedon, Bithynia (modern-day Kadikoy, Istanbul, Turkey) from 8 October to 1 November 451 AD. The council was attended by 520 bishops or their representatives, making it the largest and best-documented of the first seven ecumenical councils.

Protests on 6 June, with the slogan "Do not submit!"

Gezi Park protests

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Protests on 6 June, with the slogan "Do not submit!"
2011 protests against internet censorship.
Taksim Military Barracks, built 1806, turned into Taksim Stadium in 1921, and demolished in 1940.
Gezi Park as seen from the Marmara Hotel on Taksim Square.
The iconic 'Woman in Red' image
A damaged NTV broadcast van and a car at Taksim Square.
Protester wearing a Guy Fawkes mask
A bulldozer later nicknamed POMA was hijacked by Çarşı members and used against police forces' TOMA vehicles
Front side of Atatürk Cultural Center covered with banners
Riot police clearing Gezi Park on 15 June
A public bus damaged and vandalized with graffiti text calling Erdogan a son of a bitch
The Gezi Park protests at Kizilay, Ankara in June 2013. The protesters with flags and torches protesting the Gezi Park at the city center of Ankara, Turkey.
Istanbul LGBT Pride 2013 at Taksim Square
Taksim park northern end
A free veterinarian Clinic at Taksim Gezi Park, 7 June
Hand drawn map of Gezi park encampment
Graffiti showing the words "At least 3 beers", which parodies the government's regulation of sale of alcohol between 22:00 to 06:00 and Erdoğan's advice of 3 children.
Public park forums' map by the districts in Istanbul, during the 2013 protests in Turkey.
Public park forums' map by the provinces in Turkey, during the 2013 protests in Turkey.
Protesters on İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu, Istanbul.
The ad published in The New York Times by protesters.
The "Standing Man" protest, initiated by Erdem Gündüz
Güvenpark monument in Ankara after the protests, in which the graffiti is overpainted
Police officer firing tear gas. Istanbul, 15/16 June
TOMA vehicles with water cannons were widely used by police
Police action during Gezi park protests in Istanbul. 15 June 2013
A volunteer assists in medical help at Taksim Square.
Deathplace of Ethem Sarısülük in Kızılay, Ankara. Had set as the memorial place in post-40 days.
Gezi Park protesters
Protesters applaud a whirling Sufi wearing a gas mask.
Many women in headscarves attended the protests, despite the fact that pro-AKP media spread disinformation that they were being attacked by the protesters
A banner in Kurdish in Gezi Park during protests remembering the Assassination of Hrant Dink, a prominent Turkish-Armenian journalist: "For Hrant, For Justice (Ji Bo Hrant, Ji Bo Dade ê)"
Banner about Gezi Park protest, 2022. "We are traveller("Gezi"ci), you are goner"

A wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Turkey began on 28 May 2013, initially to contest the urban development plan for Istanbul's Taksim Gezi Park.

Constantine the Great summoned the bishops of the Christian Church to Nicaea to address divisions in the Church (mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), ca. 1000).

First Council of Nicaea

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Constantine the Great summoned the bishops of the Christian Church to Nicaea to address divisions in the Church (mosaic in Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul), ca. 1000).
The synod of Nicaea, Constantine and the condemnation and burning of Arian books, illustration from a northern Italian compendium of canon law, c. 825
The Council of Nicaea, with Arius depicted as defeated by the council, lying under the feet of Emperor Constantine
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
A fresco depicting the First Council of Nicaea at the Vatican's Sixtine Salon

The First Council of Nicaea was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.


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Indigenous Northwest Caucasian ethnic group and nation native to the historical country-region of Circassia in the North Caucasus.

Indigenous Northwest Caucasian ethnic group and nation native to the historical country-region of Circassia in the North Caucasus.

Remaining Circassian populations in historic Circassia, 21st century
Alexey Cherkassky was the Chancellor of the Russian Empire, descended from the sovereign rulers of Circassia
A map of the expulsion of Circassians to the Ottoman Empire. The light-green area denotes the final borders of Circassians, who had already been pushed southwards prior to their expulsion to the Ottoman Empire. In the late 18th century, Circassians lost their northern territories, which do not appear in green on this map.
Circassian traditional sword dance
Russian-Circassian wrestler Beslan Mudranov won Russia's first gold medal of the Rio 2016 Olympics
The isolated Northwest Caucasian language family
The mosque of Abu Darwish (Adyghe descendant), one of the oldest mosques in Amman and considered as a major landmark.
Circassian dance
Traditional Circassian clothing
Adyge dancers in traditional clothing
An old country house and traditional cuisine with Haliva (Хьэлжъо, Helɀwa) and Mataz (Мэтазэ, Metaze), two of the prominent traditional Adyghe snacks.
Circassians commemorate the banishment of the Circassians from Russia in Taksim, İstanbul
Tuman bay II (reigned 1516–1517) the last Mamluk sultan of Adyghe origins
Adyghe horsemanship in Transjordan, April 1921
Serbian troops clashing with Circassians during the Serbian-Turkish War, 1876–1878
A Circassian sipahi in the Ottoman Army
Circassian Prince Sefer Bey Zanuko in 1845
An Adyghe man from Kabarda tribe in regular (non-traditional) wear
A painting from 1843 of an Adyghe warrior by Sir William Allan
An Adyghe strike on a Russian Military Fort built over a Shapsugian village that aimed to free the Circassian Coast from the occupiers during the Russian-Circassian War, 22 March 1840
Kazbech Tuguzhoko, Circassian resistance leader
The mountaineers leave the aul, P. N. Gruzinsky, 1872
A Circassian noblewoman in the 19th century

As a consequence of the Circassian genocide, which was perpetrated by the Russian Empire in the 19th century during the Russo-Circassian War, most Circassians were exiled from their homeland in Circassia to modern-day Turkey and the rest of the Middle East, where the majority of them are concentrated today.

Council of Europe member states as of 16 March 2022.

Member states of the Council of Europe

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Council of Europe member states as of 16 March 2022.
This coin was issued in Armenia to commemorate Armenia's accession to the Council in 2001.
Council of Europe member states as of 16 March 2022.

The Council of Europe was founded on 5 May 1949 by ten western and northern European states, with Greece joining three months later, and Iceland, Turkey and West Germany joining the next year.

The Golden Apple of Discord by Jacob Jordaens

Trojan War

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Waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

Waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

The Golden Apple of Discord by Jacob Jordaens
The Burning of Troy (1759/62), oil painting by Johann Georg Trautmann
Polyxena Sarcophagus in Troy Museum.
Musician figures from clay in Troy Museum.
The Judgement of Paris (1599) by Hendrick van Balen the Elder. Gemäldegalerie, Berlin
Thetis gives her son Achilles weapons forged by Hephaestus (detail of Attic black-figure hydria, 575–550 BC)
The Abduction of Helen (1530–39) by Francesco Primaticcio, with Aphrodite directing
A map of Homeric Greece
A scene from the Iliad where Odysseus (Ulysses) discovers Achilles dressed as a woman and hiding among the princesses at the royal court of Skyros. A late Roman mosaic from La Olmeda, Spain, 4th–5th centuries AD
The Discovery of Achilles among the Daughters of Lycomedes (1664) by Jan de Bray
A map of the Troäd (Troas)
Philoctetes on Lemnos, with Heracles' bow and quiver (Attic red-figure lekythos, 420 BC)
Achilles' surrender of Briseis to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum
Achilles and Ajax engaged in a game, c. 540–530 BC, Vatican Museums
Chryses pleading with Agamemnon for his daughter (360–350 BC)
Triumphant Achilles dragging Hector's body around Troy, from a panoramic fresco of the Achilleion
Achilles killing the Amazon Penthesilea
The suicide of Ajax depicted on Greek pottery by Exekias, now on display at the Château-musée de Boulogne-sur-Mer
A fresco depicting Odysseus, Diomedes, and Cassandra, from Pompeii, Italy, 1st century BC – 1st century AD
The earliest known depiction of the Trojan Horse, from the Mykonos vase c. 670 BC
Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, kills King Priam (detail of Attic black-figure amphora, 520–510 BC)
Menelaus captures Helen in Troy, Ajax the Lesser drags Cassandra from Palladium before eyes of Priam, fresco from the Casa del Menandro, Pompeii
Poseidon smites Ajax the Lesser, by Bonaventura Genelli (1798–1868)
The murder of Agamemnon (1879 illustration from Alfred Church's Stories from the Greek Tragedians)
Odysseus and Polyphemus by Arnold Böcklin: the Cyclops' curse delays the homecoming of Odysseus for another ten years
Aeneas Flees Burning Troy (1598) by Federico Barocci
Map showing the Hittite Empire, Ahhiyawa (possibly the Achaeans) and Wilusa (Troy)
Tabula Iliaca, a 1st-century BC Roman bas-relief depicting scenes from Trojan War narratives

In 1868, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy was a real city at what is now Hisarlik in Turkey.

Ottoman Navy

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The naval warfare arm of the Ottoman Empire.

The naval warfare arm of the Ottoman Empire.

The Battle of Zonchio in 1499.
The Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538.
The Ottoman fleet during the Capture of Tunis at La Goulette in 1574.
In the siege of Nice in 1543, the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance managed to capture the city.
Ottoman fleet anchored at the French port of Toulon in 1543. Miniature by Matrakçı Nasuh, who was travelling with the fleet.
Selman Reis defending Jeddah against a Portuguese attack in 1517.
Ottoman and Acehnese guns, dismantled following the Dutch conquest of Aceh in 1874. Illustrated London News.
Surviving fragment of the first world map of Ottoman admiral Piri Reis (1513) showing the Atlantic Ocean and the Americas.
Zaporozhian Cossacks in chaika boats, destroying Ottoman galleys and capturing Caffa in 1616.
German map of the final phase of the siege of Candia during the Ottoman-Venetian War of 1645–1669. It clearly illustrates the city's trace italienne fortifications, and the proximity of the characteristic Ottoman siege trenches.
(1829), built by the Imperial Naval Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. A ship of the line with 128 guns on 3 decks, she participated in numerous important naval battles, including the siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.
Nordenfelt-class Ottoman submarine (1886) was the first submarine in history to fire a torpedo while submerged under water. Two submarines of this class, Nordenfelt II (, 1886) and Nordenfelt III (, 1887) joined the Ottoman fleet. They were built in pieces by Des Vignes (Chertsey) and Vickers (Sheffield) in England, and assembled at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Constantinople (Istanbul).
Ottoman submarine Abdül Hamid at the Taşkızak Naval Shipyard in Constantinople (Istanbul), 1886.
The two dreadnought battleships purchased by the Ottoman Navy but seized by the British government a short time before delivery, due to the outbreak of World War I in 1914: (renamed, in the foreground) and (renamed, at left).
Fantasy drawing of Sultan Osman I underway for the Ottoman Navy. The royal yacht Ertuğrul is at left, and the cruiser Hamidiye is in the background.
The Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in Constantinople, in the early days of WWI.
Ottoman battlecruiser (formerly SMS Goeben) in 1914
was a torpedo boat (in service between 1910–1923) that sank the pre-dreadnought battleship 
 during the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I. Considered in the same league as the minelayer in terms of the role that she played in the naval engagements during the battle, Muâvenet-i Millîye strongly influenced the course of the conflicts by generating a domino effect which caused the failure of the Allied strategy.
Silhouettes of the warships of the Ottoman Navy, as projected for 1914 (including the undelivered dreadnought Sultan Osman-ı Evvel)
TCG Yavuz (B-70) in Istanbul, 1947
Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nezareti) in the Kasımpaşa quarter of the Beyoğlu district in Istanbul, along the northern shoreline of the Golden Horn. It is currently the headquarters of the Northern Sea Area Command (Kuzey Deniz Saha Komutanlığı) of the Turkish Navy.
Turkish Naval High School (1773) in Heybeliada Island near Istanbul.
"Göke" (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis
Barbarossa's galley during his campaign in France (1543–1544)
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Turgut Reis
Piri Reis
Piyale Pasha
Uluç Ali Reis
Gazi Hasan Pasha
Bozcaadalı Hasan Hüsnü Pasha (1890)
Ali Osman Pasha
Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan
Naval uniform 1910
Naval uniform 1909–1916
Naval uniform 1909–1916
Naval uniform 1916–1925
Naval uniform 1916–1925
Naval uniforms as of 1915
Muzaffer Adil Bey
Rauf Orbay
Necip Okaner
Ships of the Indian ocean, including an Ottoman carrack on the right.

After the end of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Navy's tradition was continued under the modern Turkish Naval Forces.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus

Cyprus problem

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Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus
A Greek Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of Enosis (union) with Greece
The "Green Line" in Nicosia, Cyprus.
The north–south checkpoint has been open since 2003
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus
Former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan was the creator of the Annan plan.
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006
Opening of Ledra Street in April 2008
Greek Cypriot negotiator Andreas Mavroyiannis and the Turkish Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Feridun Sinirlioğlu, in Ankara, within the scope of the 2014 Cyprus talks
Under the control of the Republic of Cyprus
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

The international complications of the dispute stretch beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the guarantor powers under the Zürich and London Agreement (Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), the United Nations, and the European Union, along with (unofficially) the United States and formerly the interference of Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Bloc.