Turkish literature

TurkishliteratureOttoman literatureTurkish poetryEpic tradition of Turkish literatureFecr-i ÂtîSecond New GenerationTurkeyauthorclassical Turkish literature
Turkish literature (Türk edebiyatı) comprises oral compositions and written texts in Turkic languages.wikipedia
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Yunus Emre

Junus Emr
One of the most important figures of early Turkish literature was the 13th century Sufi poet Yunus Emre.
Yunus Emre has exercised immense influence on Turkish literature from his own day until the present, because Yunus Emre is, after Ahmet Yesevi and Sultan Walad, one of the first known poets to have composed works in the spoken Turkish of his own age and region rather than in Persian or Arabic.

Oghuz Turks

Subsequent to this period, between the 9th and 11th centuries, there arose among the nomadic Turkic peoples of Central Asia a tradition of oral epics, such as the Book of Dede Korkut of the Oghuz Turks—the linguistic and cultural ancestors of the modern Turkish people—and the Manas epic of the Kyrgyz people.
The modern and classical literature of Azerbaijan, Turkey and Central Asia are also considered Oghuz literature, since it was produced by their descendants.


Sefāret-nāme, literally the book of embassy, was a genre in the Turkish literature which was closely related to seyahatname (the book of travels), but was specific to the recounting of journeys and experiences of an Ottoman ambassador in a foreign, usually European, land and capital.


Mahmud Abdülbâkî
Considered one of the greatest contributors to Turkish literature, Bâkî came to be known as Sultânüş-şuarâ, or "Sultan of poets".

Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin Sami
What is widely recognized as the first Turkish novel, Taaşuk-u Tal'at ve Fitnat (تعشق طلعت و فطنت; "Tal'at and Fitnat in Love") by Şemsettin Sami (1850–1904), was published just ten years later, in 1872.
He gained a place in Ottoman literature as a talented author under the name of Şemseddin Sami Efendi and contributed to the Ottoman Turkish language reforms.


TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
With the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the two traditions came together for the first time.
Turkish literature is a mix of cultural influences.

Rhymed prose

rhyming textrhyming proseSaj
A large part of the reason for this was that much prose was expected to adhere to the rules of sec (سجع, also transliterated as seci), or rhymed prose, a type of writing descended from the Arabic saj and which prescribed that between each adjective and noun in a sentence, there must be a rhyme.
It influenced other cultures of the Muslim world, such as Persian (as exemplified by Saadi's Gulestan) and Turkish (tr:Seci).

Tevfik Fikret

Hatice Refia Hanım
Accordingly, the magazine's literary ventures, under the direction of the poet Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), were geared towards creating a Western-style "high art" in Turkey.
Tevfik Fikret was the pseudonym of Mehmed Tevfik (December 24, 1867 – August 19, 1915), an Ottoman educator and poet, who is considered the founder of the modern school of Turkish poetry.

Imadaddin Nasimi

Early in the history of the tradition, the Persian influence was very strong, but this was mitigated somewhat through the influence of poets such as the Azerbaijani Nesîmî (?–1417?) and the Uyghur Ali Şîr Nevâî (1441–1501), both of whom offered strong arguments for the poetic status of the Turkic languages as against the much-venerated Persian.
Nesîmî's work represents an important stage in the development of poetry not only in the Azerbaijani language vernacular, but also in the Ottoman Divan poetry tradition.

Mathnawi (poetic form)

Mat̲h̲nawī remained prominent in Turkish literature until the end of the Ottoman Empire, when it began to transform into more conversational and rhetorical literature.

Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil

Halit Ziya UşaklıgilHalit Ziya (Uşaklıgil)Halit Ziya Uşakligil
The group's prose writers, on the other hand—particularly Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil (1867–1945)—were primarily influenced by Realism, although the writer Mehmed Rauf (1875–1931) did write the first Turkish example of a psychological novel, 1901's Eylül (ايلول; "September").
Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil (also spelled Halit and Uşakizâde) (1866 – 27 March 1945) was a Turkish author, poet, and playwright.

Kutadgu Bilig

Happiness and Wisdom
The earlier written works Kutadgu Bilig and Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk date to the second half of the 11th century and are the earliest known examples of Turkish literature with few exceptions.

Evliya Çelebi

Evliya CelebiEvliya ChelebiEvlija Čelebija
The golden age of Ottoman literature lasted from the 15th century until the 18th century and included mostly divan poetry but also some prose works, most notably the 10 volume Seyahatnâme (Book of Travels) written by Evliya Çelebi.

Epic of Koroghlu

Epic of KöroğluKöroğluKoroghlu
Concurrent to the Book of Dede Korkut was the so-called Epic of Köroğlu, which concerns the adventures of Rüşen Ali ("Köroğlu", or "son of the blind man") as he exacted revenge for the blinding of his father.

Turkish women writers

Turkish writerfemale novelistnovelist
The tradition of literary modernism also informs the work of female novelist Adalet Ağaoğlu (1929– ).
Turkish women writers refers to Turkish women contributors to Turkish literature.

Rıfat Ilgaz

Rifat Ilgaz
In a very different tradition, but evincing a similar strong political viewpoint, was the satirical short-story writer Aziz Nesin (1915–1995) and Rıfat Ilgaz(1911–1993).
Ilgaz started writing poetry during his junior school years and evolved into one of the prolific social-realist writers of the 20th-century Turkish literature.

Orhan Pamuk

PamukOrhan Parmuk
Orhan Pamuk (1952– ), winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature, is another such innovative novelist, though his works—such as 1990's Beyaz Kale ("The White Castle") and Kara Kitap ("The Black Book") and 1998's Benim Adım Kırmızı ("My Name is Red")—are influenced more by postmodernism than by modernism.
Popular success took a bit longer to come to Pamuk, but his 1990 novel Kara Kitap (The Black Book) became one of the most controversial and popular books in Turkish literature, due to its complexity and richness.

Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi

Ali Aziz EfendiMuhayyelât
Among these five works is the Muhayyelât of Ali Aziz Efendi, cited above.
Muhayyelât is considered to be an early precursor of the new Turkish literature to emerge in the Tanzimat period of the 19th century.

Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar

Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar
Another novelist contemporary to, but outside of, the social realist and "village novel" traditions is Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (1901–1962).
Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (23 June 1901 – 24 January 1962) was a Turkish poet, novelist, literary scholar and essayist, widely regarded as one of the most important representatives of modernism in Turkish literature.

A Mind at Peace

In addition to being an important essayist and poet, Tanpınar wrote a number of novels—such as Huzur ("A Mind at Peace", 1949) and Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü ("The Time Regulation Institute", 1961)—which dramatize the clash between East and West in modern Turkish culture and society.
Today, he is considered to be an icon of Turkish literature and is an influence on many contemporary Turkish novelists, foremost among them Nobel Laureate Orhan Pamuk.

Adalet Ağaoğlu

Adalet Sümer
The tradition of literary modernism also informs the work of female novelist Adalet Ağaoğlu (1929– ).
She is considered one of the foremost novelists of 20th-century Turkish literature.

Contemporary Turkish literature

The time that can be called contemporary in Turkish literature falls in the period between the middle of the 20th century and the first years of the new millennium.

Mevlevi Order

MevleviWhirling Dervisheswhirling dervish

List of Ottoman poets

This is a list of poets who wrote under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire, or — more broadly — who wrote in the tradition of Ottoman Dîvân poetry.

Ahmet Haşim

Ahmed Hâşim
The two outstanding figures to emerge from the movement were, in poetry, Ahmed Hâşim (1884–1933), and in prose, Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (1889–1974).
At this time, he was a member of the movement known as Fecr-i Âtî, or "Dawn of the Future".