Turnpike trusts

turnpiketurnpike roadturnpike trustturnpikedturnpikesturnpike roadsTrustTurnpike ActturnpikingAct of Parliament in 1725
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.wikipedia
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Crawley

Crawley Borough CouncilCrawley, SussexCrawley, West Sussex
An example is the first Turnpike Act for Surrey in 1696, during the reign of William III for enhanced repairs between Reigate in Surrey and Crawley in Sussex.
Crawley grew slowly in importance over the next few centuries, but was boosted in the 18th century by the construction of the turnpike road between London and Brighton.

Wadesmill

It then passed an act that gave the local justices of the peace powers to erect toll-gates on a section of the road, between Wadesmill, Hertfordshire; Caxton, Cambridgeshire; and Stilton, Huntingdonshire for 11 years, the revenues so raised to be used for the maintenance of the road in their jurisdictions.
Historically Wadesmill is particularly notable for two features - it is the location of the first turnpike in England (and therefore the world), and the presence of the Clarkson Memorial halfway up nearby High Cross hill, a memorial to Thomas Clarkson's rest point in his travels at which he decided to devote much of the rest of his life to ending the slave trade.

A4 road (England)

A4A4 roadGreat West Road
On the Bath Road for instance, a traveller from London to the head of the Thames Valley in Wiltshire would pass through the jurisdiction of seven trusts, paying a toll at the gates of each.
As Bath became more popular with the wealthy and famous, it was inevitable that turnpike trusts would be set up under the terms of the Turnpike Acts to pay for maintenance and improvements to the road.

Toll road

turnpiketolltoll plaza
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Turnpike trusts were established in England and Wales from about 1706 in response to the need for better roads than the few and poorly-maintained tracks then available.

A5 road (Great Britain)

A5A5 roadA5 trunk road
Between 1815 and 1826 Thomas Telford undertook a major reorganization of the existing trusts along the London to Holyhead Road, and the construction of large sections of new road to avoid hindrances, particularly in North Wales. The engineering work of Telford on the Holyhead Road (now the A5) in the 1820s reduced the journey time of the London mail coach from 45 hours to just 27 hours, and the best mail coach speeds rose from 5-6 mph (8–10 km/h) to 9-10 mph (14–16 km/h).
A Parliamentary committee led to an Act of Parliament of 1815 that authorised the purchase of existing turnpike road interests and, where necessary, the construction of new road, to complete the route between the two capitals.

John Metcalf (civil engineer)

John MetcalfBlind JackBlind Jack Metcalf
Road construction improved slowly, initially through the efforts of individual surveyors such as John Metcalf in Yorkshire in the 1760s.
He was an accomplished diver, swimmer, card player and fiddler, but was better known for the period between 1765 and 1792 when he built about 180 mi of turnpike road, mainly in the north of England and as such, he became known as one of the fathers of the modern road.

Milestone

milepostmile markermilepoint
From the 1750s, Acts required trusts to erect milestones indicating the distance between the main towns on the road.
In the UK, milestones are especially associated with former turnpike roads.

Stagecoach

stage coachstagestagecoaches
The engineering work of Telford on the Holyhead Road (now the A5) in the 1820s reduced the journey time of the London mail coach from 45 hours to just 27 hours, and the best mail coach speeds rose from 5-6 mph (8–10 km/h) to 9-10 mph (14–16 km/h).
Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, and a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver".

Rebecca Riots

Rebecca RiotersDaughters of RebeccaRebecca
In Mid Wales in 1839, new tolls on old roads sparked protests known as the Rebecca Riots.
In 1844 a Parliamentary act to consolidate and amend the laws relating to turnpike trusts in Wales was passed.

Yorkshire

Yorkshire, EnglandCounty of YorkYorkshireman
Road construction improved slowly, initially through the efforts of individual surveyors such as John Metcalf in Yorkshire in the 1760s.
Canals and turnpike roads were introduced in the late 18th century.

Toll houses of the United Kingdom

toll housetoll gatetoll booth
The trusts applied some funds to erecting tollhouses that accommodated the pikeman or toll-collector beside the turnpike gate.
Many tollhouses were built by turnpike trusts in England, Wales and Scotland during the 18th and early 19th centuries.

Toll roads in Great Britain

turnpiketoll roadturnpike road
Toll roads in Great Britain, used to raise fees for the management of roads in the United Kingdom, were common in the era of the turnpike trusts.

Stony Stratford

Stony Stratford EastGalley Hill and Fullers SladeStony Stratford West
The first scheme that had trustees who were not justices was established through a Turnpike Act in 1707, for a section of the London-Chester road between Fornhill (near Hockliffe) and Stony Stratford.
Traffic on Watling Street and the consequent wear and tear to it was such as to necessitate England's first turnpike trust, from Hockliffe to Stony Stratford, in 1707.

Liverpool and Manchester Railway

Liverpool & Manchester RailwayLiverpool and ManchesterLiverpool and Manchester Railway Company
In 1829, the year before the Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened, the Warrington and Lower Irlam Trust had receipts of £1,680 but, by 1834, this had fallen to £332.
Goods were transported between Liverpool and the factories around Manchester either by the canals or by poor-quality roads; the Turnpike between Liverpool and Manchester was described as "crooked and rough" with an "infamous" surface.

Keighley and Kendal Turnpike

Keighley and Kendal Road
The Keighley and Kendal Turnpike was a road built in 1753 by a turnpike trust between Keighley in the West Riding of Yorkshire and Kendal in Westmorland, England.

Sheffield to Hathersage Turnpike

The Sheffield to Hathersage turnpike was an early road through the English Peak District, which was improved by a turnpike trust in the 18th century.

Turnpike trusts in Greater Manchester

turnpike to be opened in Tameside
Turnpikes contributed significantly to England's economic development before and during the Industrial Revolution.

Macadam

macadamizedmacadam roadmacadamisation
They recommended the building of new sections of road to avoid obstructions, eased steep slopes and directed the relaying of existing road-beds with carefully graded stones to create a dry, fast-running surface (known as Macadamising).
On 15 January 1816, he was elected Surveyor-General of roads for the Turnpike Trust and was now responsible for 149 miles of road.

John Loudon McAdam

John Loudon MacadamJohn McAdamMcAdam
19th-century engineers made great advances, notably Thomas Telford and John Loudon McAdam.
McAdam had also been appointed surveyor to the Bristol Turnpike Trust in 1816, where he decided to remake the roads under his care with crushed stone bound with gravel on a firm base of large stones.

Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road

Sparrows Herne turnpikeSparrows Herne
The turnpike trust was set up in 1762 by around 300 landed gentry to look after about 26 miles of road between Sparrows Herne near Bushey and Walton near Aylesbury.

Act of Parliament (UK)

ActAct of ParliamentActs of Parliament
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Railway Mania

railway bubbleThe boom in rail transport in Britain1840s railway bubble
Turnpikes declined with the coming of the railways and then the Local Government Act 1888 gave responsibility for maintaining main roads to county councils and county borough councils.

Local Government Act 1888

Local Government Act18891888
Turnpikes declined with the coming of the railways and then the Local Government Act 1888 gave responsibility for maintaining main roads to county councils and county borough councils.

County council

County Councillorcounty councilsCouncil
Turnpikes declined with the coming of the railways and then the Local Government Act 1888 gave responsibility for maintaining main roads to county councils and county borough councils.