Turpentine

Venice turpentineOil of turpentineSpirit of turpentineAqua RagiaGum turpentinerectified turpentine oilterpentineturpentine oilturpentiningturps
Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps ) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin from live trees, mainly pines.wikipedia
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Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
It is mainly used as a solvent and as a source of materials for organic synthesis.
Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol).

Terpene

terpenesmonoterpenenorisoprenoid
Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.
Terpenes are the major components of rosin and of turpentine produced from resin.

Limonene

d-limonenedipentene(-)-(S)-limonene
Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.
The less common L -isomer is found in mint oils and has a piny, turpentine-like odor.

Canada balsam

balsamCanadian balsam
Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine which is made from the oleoresin of the balsam fir.
Canada balsam, also called Canada turpentine or balsam of fir, is a turpentine made from the resin of the balsam fir tree (Abies balsamea) of boreal North America.

Resin

resinsresinouspine resin
Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps ) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin from live trees, mainly pines.
Notable examples of plant resins include amber, Balm of Gilead, balsam, Canada balsam, Boswellia, copal from trees of Protium copal and Hymenaea courbaril, dammar gum from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae, Dragon's blood from the dragon trees (Dracaena species), elemi, frankincense from Boswellia sacra, galbanum from Ferula gummosa, gum guaiacum from the lignum vitae trees of the genus Guaiacum, kauri gum from trees of Agathis australis, hashish (Cannabis resin) from Cannabis indica, labdanum from mediterranean species of Cistus, mastic (plant resin) from the mastic tree Pistacia lentiscus, myrrh from shrubs of Commiphora, sandarac resin from Tetraclinis articulata, the national tree of Malta, styrax (a Benzoin resin from various Styrax species), spinifex resin from Australian grasses, and turpentine, distilled from pine resin.

Camphene

camphene-90 wax
Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.
It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine, cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil, neroli, ginger oil, and valerian.

Pinus ponderosa

ponderosa pineponderosaponderosa pines
Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).
Some state that the bark smells of turpentine, which could reflect the dominance of terpenes (alpha- and beta-pinenes, and delta-3-carene).

Pinus pinaster

maritime pinecluster pineP. pinaster
Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).
Pinus pinaster resin is also a useful source of turpentine and rosin.

Pine

Pinuspine treepine trees
Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps ) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin from live trees, mainly pines. When producing chemical wood pulp from pines or other coniferous trees, sulfate turpentine may be condensed from the gas generated in Kraft process pulp digesters.
Pine wood is widely used in high-value carpentry items such as furniture, window frames, panelling, floors, and roofing, and the resin of some species is an important source of turpentine.

3-Carene

careneδ-3-Carene(+)-3-carene
Turpentine is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with lesser amounts of carene, camphene, dipentene, and terpinolene.
It occurs as a constituent of turpentine, with a content as high as 42% depending on the source.

Longleaf pine

Pinus palustrislongleaflongleaf pines
Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).
These forests were the source of naval stores - resin, turpentine, and timber - needed by merchants and the navy for their ships.

White spirit

mineral spiritsmineral spiritStoddard solvent
Mineral turpentine or other petroleum distillates are used to replace turpentine, but they are very different chemically.
The word "mineral" in "mineral spirits" or "mineral turpentine" is meant to distinguish it from distilled spirits (distilled directly from fermented grains and fruit) or from true turpentine (distilled tree resin).

Rosin

colophonycolophoniumwood rosin
Molten rosin remains in the still bottoms after turpentine has been evaporated and recovered from a condenser.
Rosin is the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded by various species of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine.

Camphor

camphoraceous(+)-camphorcampher
Commercially used camphor, linalool, alpha-terpineol, and geraniol are all usually produced from alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which are two of the chief chemical components of turpentine.
Camphor can also be synthetically produced from oil of turpentine.

Pistacia terebinthus

terebinthPistacia palaestinaterebinths
The word turpentine derives (via French and Latin) from the Greek word τερεβινθίνη terebinthine, the feminine form (to go with the feminine Greek word for resin) of an adjective τερεβίνθινος derived from the Greek noun τερέβινθος, the name for a species of tree, the terebinth tree.
Pistacia terebinthus is used as a source for turpentine, possibly the earliest known source.

Pinus massoniana

Chinese red pineMasson's pineP. massoniana
Important pines for turpentine production include: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), Masson's pine (Pinus massoniana), Sumatran pine (Pinus merkusii), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa).
Chinese rosin is obtained mainly from the turpentine of this pine (Pinus massoniana) and slash pine (''P.

Carnauba wax

carnaubacarnauba paste waxcarnuba wax
Turpentine has long been used as a solvent, mixed with beeswax or with carnauba wax, to make fine furniture wax for use as a protective coating over oiled wood finishes (e.g., tung oil).
Carnauba wax can produce a glossy finish and as such is used in automobile waxes, shoe polishes, dental floss, food products such as sweets, instrument polishes, and floor and furniture waxes and polishes, especially when mixed with beeswax and with turpentine.

Camphine

colored camphine
Camphine was the trade name of a purified spirit of turpentine formerly used for lamps, generally prepared by distilling turpentine with quicklime.

Kraft process

kraftkraft pulpingkraft pulp mill
When producing chemical wood pulp from pines or other coniferous trees, sulfate turpentine may be condensed from the gas generated in Kraft process pulp digesters.
The volatiles are condensed and collected; in the case of northern softwoods this consists mainly of raw turpentine.

Varnish

varnishesvarnishingSanding sealer
As a solvent, turpentine is used for thinning oil-based paints, for producing varnishes, and as a raw material for the chemical industry.
Originally, turpentine or alcohol was used to dissolve the resin and thin the drying oils.

Larix occidentalis

western larch
Venice turpentine is produced from the western larch Larix occidentalis.
Western larch is used for the production of Venice turpentine.

Destructive distillation

coal carbonizationwood distillationcoal carbonisation
Turpentine may alternatively be condensed from destructive distillation of pine wood.

Tung oil

tungoiltung-oil
Turpentine has long been used as a solvent, mixed with beeswax or with carnauba wax, to make fine furniture wax for use as a protective coating over oiled wood finishes (e.g., tung oil).
Diluents range from traditional spirits of turpentine to any of the new citrus-based thinners to naphtha.

Vicks VapoRub

VapoRubLove RubVicks
Many modern chest rubs, such as the Vicks variety, still contain turpentine in their formulations.

Charles Herty

Charles Holmes HertyCharles H. HertyDr. Charles Herty
A Witt lecture on the poor processes used by the American Naval stores industry and the almost certain likelihood that those processes would completely destroy the Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) led Herty to study the naval store industry's use of those trees to produce timber and turpentine.