A report on Tuscany

Thornthwaite climate classification of Tuscany
Cinerary urns of the Villanovan culture
The Chimera of Arezzo, Etruscan bronze, 400 BC
Battle of Montaperti, 1260
Primavera (1482) by Botticelli
Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola in Piazza della Signoria in Florence 1498 - Painting depicting Renaissance Florence
Map of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Memorial to the victims of the Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre, in which 560 locals were murdered by Nazi Germans and Italian Fascists in 1944
Michelangelo's David
A painting from the Sienese School by Pietro Lorenzetti
Giacomo Puccini
Tuscan poet and literary figure Petrarch
An assortment of Tuscan foods: various wine and cheese, and different sorts of salamis and hams
Vineyards in the Chianti region
The Via de' Tornabuoni in Florence, the city's top fashion and shopping street, contains some of the world's most luxurious clothing and jewelry houses, such as Cartier, Ferragamo, Gucci, Versace and Bulgari
Sunflower field near Castiglione della Pescaia, Maremma
Tuscan landscape near Barga between the Apuan Alps and the Apennine Mountains
Lake Massaciuccoli
A view of the Chianti countryside
Balze di Volterra
Fallow deer in the Padule di Bolgheri
Arno river in Casentino
Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia
Guido of Arezzo
A page from Fibonacci's Liber Abaci (1202)
Battle of Giglio (1241)
Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy
Leonardo da Vinci
Lorenzo de' Medici
Niccolò Machiavelli, author of The Prince
Amerigo Vespucci
Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany
Galileo Galilei
Pinocchio, created by Carlo Collodi (1883)
An Italian partisan in Florence (1944)
Arezzo
Florence
Pisa
Siena
San Gimignano
Lucca
Pienza
Cortona
Monte Argentario
Elba
Maremma Regional Park
Michelangelo's David
Monte Argentario
Amerigo Vespucci

- Tuscany

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Florence

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View of Florence by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493
Julius Caesar established Florence in 59 BC.
The Goth King Totila razes the walls of Florence during the Gothic War: illumination from the Chigi manuscript of Villani's Cronica.
The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery
Girolamo Savonarola being burnt at the stake in 1498. The brooding Palazzo Vecchio is at centre right.
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his family. Leopold was, from 1765 to 1790, the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Porte Sante cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine history
1/5 Mahratta Light Infantry, Florence, 28 August 1944
Florence with snow cover in December 2009
Seats in the Florence City Council
(2019–2024)
Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore
Palazzo Vecchio
1835 City Map of Florence, still largely in the confines of its medieval city centre
Ponte Vecchio, which spans the Arno river
Florence in the evening --Same picture as above. The same picture--
Palazzo Pitti
Ponte Santa Trinita with the Oltrarno district
The city of Florence as seen from the hill of Fiesole
Florence Duomo as seen from Michelangelo hill
Piazzale degli Uffizi
Palazzo Pitti on Boboli Gardens' side
The façade of the Cathedral
Piazza della Repubblica
Panorama composite, overview of Firenze, taken from the Giardino Bardini viewpoint
Replica of David and other statues, Piazza della Signoria
Tourists flock to the Fontana del Porcellino.
Tourists and restaurant in the Piazza del Duomo
Fiaschi of basic Chianti
Botticelli's Venus, stored in the Uffizi
Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi
Michelangelo's David
The Uffizi are the 10th most visited art museum in the world.
The Palazzo della Signoria, better known as the Palazzo Vecchio (English: The Old Palace)
Brunelleschi's dome
The introduction of the Decameron (1350–1353) by Giovanni Boccaccio
The Teatro della Pergola
Florentine steak in Florence
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
A display of proboscideans in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, or the Natural History Museum of Florence
Luxury boutiques along Florence's prestigious Via de' Tornabuoni
Calcio Storico
Stadio Artemio Franchi
Rectorate's auditorium of University of Florence
Tramway Sirio in Florence
Route map of the tramway
Florence Airport
Mobikes at Parco delle Cascine, Florence
Dante Alighieri
Lorenzo de' Medici
Amerigo Vespucci
Niccolò Machiavelli
The traditional boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery

Florence (Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region.

Italy

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Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

The high geothermal gradient that forms part of the peninsula makes it potentially exploitable also in other regions; research carried out in the 1960s and 1970s identified potential geothermal fields in Lazio and Tuscany, as well as in most volcanic islands.

Extent of Etruscan civilisation and the twelve Etruscan League cities.

Etruscan civilization

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Extent of Etruscan civilisation and the twelve Etruscan League cities.
Biconical cinerary urn with crest-shaped helmet lid, 9th–8th century BC, from Monterozzi (Fontanaccia), Tarquinia, Museo archeologico nazionale
Urn in the shape of a hut, which represents the typical Etruscan house of the Villanovan phase, 8th century BC, from Vulci, Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève
Etruscan pendant with swastika symbols from Bolsena, Italy, 700–650 BC. Louvre
Putto Graziani, hollow-cast bronze on which is engraved the Etruscan inscription "To the god Tec Sans as a gift" (Tec Sans was the protectress of childhood), 3-2nd century BC, Rome, Museo Gregoriano Etrusco
Sarcophagus of the Spouses, about 1st century BC, Volterra, Museo etrusco Guarnacci
Painted terracotta Sarcophagus of Seianti Hanunia Tlesnasa, about 150–130 BC.
Ethnic groups of Italy (as defined by today's borders) in 400 BC
Etruscan territories and major spread pathways of Etruscan products
The Mars of Todi, an Etruscan bronze sculpture, c. 400 BC
A former Etruscan walled town, Civita di Bagnoregio
The Capitoline Wolf, long considered an Etruscan bronze, feeding the twins Romulus and Remus
Etruscan mother and child, 500–450 BC
Sarcophagus of the Spouses, (Louvre, Room 18)
Etruscan warrior, found near Viterbo, Italy, dated c. undefined 500 BC
3D view, facing west, of the Etruscan Hypogeum of the Volumnis, Perugia, Italy, cut from a laser scan
5th century BC fresco of dancers and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia, Italy
Janiform kantharos, Etruscan pottery, second half of the 4th century BC.
Cippus Perusinus. 3rd–2nd century BC, San Marco near Perugia
Samples of Etruscan script, from the Liber linteus

The Etruscan civilization of ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy, southern Veneto, and western Campania.

Lazio

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One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.

Relief map of Lazio
Panorama of the Aniene Valley
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting Ancient Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today.
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Kiwifruit
Pecorino Romano Cheese
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Spaghetti alla carbonara
Bucatini all'amatriciana
Spaghetti alla Gricia
Fettuccine Alfredo
Guanciale
Carciofi alla Romana
Carciofolata
Cima di rapa
Romaine lettuce
Rigatoni con la pajata
Trippa alla romana
Lampredotto sandwich
Coda alla vaccinara
Abbacchio

Lazio comprises a land area of 17,242 km2 and it has borders with Tuscany, Umbria, and Marche to the north, Abruzzo and Molise to the east, Campania to the south, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence

Italian Renaissance

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Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Period in Italian history covering the 15th and 16th centuries.

Portrait of Dante Alighieri by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, Uffizi Gallery Florence
Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was the patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici by Jacopo Pontormo
Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance Man
Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi and Solomon Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527), the author of The Prince and prototypical Renaissance man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.
Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 x. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla (ca. 1423–1457).
Detail of The Last Judgment, 1536–1541, by Michelangelo
David by Donatello
Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502
Claudio Monteverdi by Bernardo Strozzi

The Renaissance began in Tuscany in Central Italy and centred in the city of Florence.

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank

House of Medici

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Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici, in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici, in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici bank
The Confirmation of the Rule, by Domenico Ghirlandaio
Cosimo Pater patriae, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
The Medici Wedding Tapestry of 1589
Cosimo I, founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
From left to right: The Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena, The Grand Duke Cosimo II, and their elder son, the future Ferdinando II
Cosimo III, the Medicean grand duke, in Grand Ducal regalia
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the last of the Grand Ducal line, in Minerva, Merkur und Plutus huldigen der Kurfürstin Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici) after Antonio Bellucci, 1706
The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat.
Medici family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.
Here seen sliced in half, an art historian suggests that whole blood oranges could be the imagery in the Medici coats of arms
Old coat of arms of the Medici used by Giovanni di Bicci and Cosimo the Elder
The intermediate coat of arms of the Medici, Or, six balls in orle gules
The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI in 1465.<ref name=Woodward162>John Woodward, A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry, 1894, p. 162</ref>
Great coat of arms of Medici of Ottajano
Augmented Arms of Medici
Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany
Coat of arms of Medici popes
Coat of arms of the Medici Cardinals
Coat of Arms of Catherine of Medici, as Queen of France
Coat of Arms of Maria of Medici, as Queen of France
Achievement of the House of de' Medici
Coat of Arms of the Grand-Duchy of Tuscany

The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank.

Pisa

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Hypothetical map of Pisa in the fifth century AD
Hypothetical map of Pisa in the 11th century AD
New city walls, erected in 1156 by Consul Cocco Griffi
Idealized depiction of Pisa from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle.
Bonus certificate of Pisa, issued July 19, 1875
The Leaning Tower of Pisa.
The Monumental Campo Santo in the Piazza del Duomo
Façade of Santa Maria della Spina.
St. Francis' Church
Palazzo della Carovana or dei Cavalieri.
Cittadella vecchia.
Convent, Pisa, Italy, 1895. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection (S03_06_01_001 image 291).
Lungarno di Pisa.
Pisa
A.C. Pisa 1909 play at the Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, as seen from the Leaning Tower
Pisa river view

Pisa (, or ) is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.

Emilia-Romagna

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One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

One of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna.

Castle Estense in Ferrara
Relief map of Emilia-Romagna
Lagoons along the Po delta
Seat of the Regional Assembly of Emilia-Romagna in Bologna
Piazza del Popolo in Cesena
View of Bologna
Arch of Augustus in Rimini
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Wheat fields in Province of Reggio Emilia
Ferrari 458 Spider.The provinces of Modena and Bologna are well known for their sport car industry
Bernardo Bertolucci's star on Hollywood Walk of Fame
Barrels of traditional balsamic vinegar
Wheels of Parmigiano Reggiano
Val Trebbia, near Piacenza
Badlands of Canossa
Cimone Mount, in the Apennines
Hills around Bologna
Casentinesi Forests
Delta of the Po river

The history of Emilia-Romagna dates back to Roman times when the region of Emilia was ruled by imperial judges linked to the nearby regions of either Liguria or Tuscany.

Petrarch portrait by Altichiero

Petrarch

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Scholar and poet of early Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

Scholar and poet of early Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists.

Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo
La Casa del Petrarca (birthplace) at Vicolo dell'Orto, 28 in Arezzo
Summit of Mont Ventoux
Petrarch's Arquà house near Padua where he retired to spend his last years
Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt
Petrarch's Virgil (title page) (c. 1336)
Illuminated manuscript by Simone Martini, 29 x 20 cm Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, c. 1510–1520). Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, who spin, draw out and cut the thread of life, represent Death in this tapestry, as they triumph over the fallen body of Chastity. This is the third subject in Petrarch's poem "The Triumphs". First, Love triumphs; then Love is overcome by Chastity, Chastity by Death, Death by Fame, Fame by Time and Time by Eternity
Petrarch revived the work and letters of the ancient Roman Senator Marcus Tullius Cicero
Laura de Noves
Dante Alighieri, detail from a Luca Signorelli fresco in the chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
Statue of Petrarch on the Uffizi Palace, in Florence
Petrarch's tomb at Arquà Petrarca

Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of Arezzo on 20 July 1304.

Siena

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Capitoline Wolf at Siena Duomo. According to a legend Siena was founded by Senius and Aschius, two sons of Remus. When they fled Rome, they took the statue of the She-wolf to Siena, which became a symbol of the town.
Siena Cathedral
Interior of the Siena Cathedral
Façade of the Palazzo Pubblico (town hall) during the Palio days
Piazza Salimbeni
Streets of old Siena
Basilica of San Domenico
View from the Campanile del Mangia
Madonna and Child with saints polyptych by Duccio (1311–18)
Sassetta, Institution of the Eucharist (1430–32), Pinacoteca di Siena
Stadio Artemio Franchi – Montepaschi Arena
The Strade Bianche cycling race starts and finishes in Siena
Siena, Campanile Palazzo Pubblico & Duomo
Siena, Campanile, Torre del Mangia (Palazzo Pubblico)
Siena, Duomo
The interior of the dome in the Siena cathedral
Interior of the dome at the duomo, Siena
Panorama of Siena
Piazza del Campo

Siena (, ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; ) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.