A report on Tuzla

Tuzla town, 1897
Tuzla Canton Government Building in flames during the 2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Tuzla valley (coal mines, lakes, airport)
A small bridge that indicates the crossing from the area of Korzo to the Pannonian lakes.
Pannonian Lakes during winter time.
Main park of Tuzla, located next to the Pannonian lakes and the area Korzo.
Statues of Meša Selimović and Ismet Mujezinović
WizzAir, main airline, airplane taxiing after landing in Tuzla International Airport.
Public fountain and city mosque
Seal of Tuzla county, 1850–1923
Seal of Tuzla town, 1850–1923
Tuzla salt mine, 1897
Third Yugoslav partisans' Corps marching through liberated Tuzla in October 1943.
Yugoslav-time industrial plants in Tuzla
Tuzla Power Plant
Work Affair and Residential building in the center square of Tuzla.
High scale building at residential zone Stupine.
Business center, as well as the main Muslim Religious center.
Trg Slobode
WWII memorial
Panoramic view of the Mellain Hotel building from the Pannonian Lakes.
King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud Mosque.
Tuzla Thermal Power Plant, the largest thermal-powered plant in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Third-largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the administrative center of Tuzla Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

- Tuzla

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans.

Country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans.

Iron Age cult carriage from Banjani, near Sokolac
Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina
Hval's Codex, illustrated Slavic manuscript from medieval Bosnia
Bosnia in the Middle Ages spanning the Banate of Bosnia and the succeeding Kingdom of Bosnia
Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque in Sarajevo, dating from 1531
Austro-Hungarian troops enter Sarajevo, 1878
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip
"Keep/Protect Yugoslavia" (Čuvajte Jugoslaviju), a variant of the alleged last words of King Alexander I, in an illustration of Yugoslav peoples dancing the kolo
The railway bridge over the Neretva River in Jablanica, twice destroyed during the 1943 Case White offensive
Eternal flame memorial to military and civilian World War II victims in Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina's flag while part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Dissolution of Yugoslavia
The Executive Council Building burns after being struck by tank fire during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992
Tuzla government building burning after anti-government clashes on 7 February 2014
Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS) and Brčko District (BD)
Estimated development of real GDP per capita of Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1952
Proportional diagram of Bosnia and Herzegovina exports as of 2019
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo
Apron view of the Sarajevo International Airport
University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Law
National and University Library in Sarajevo
Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina headquarters in Sarajevo
Stećci from Radimlja, near Stolac (13th century)
Bosniaks dancing a traditional kolo
Serbs from Bosanska Krajina in traditional clothing
Bosnian meat platter that contains, among other things, ćevapi, which is considered the national dish of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium in Sarajevo hosted the opening ceremony of the 1984 Winter Olympics.
Edin Džeko, captain of the Bosnian national football team
Neum, Bosnian and Herzegovinan only town on the Adriatic

On 4 February 2014, the protests against the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of the country's two entities, dubbed the Bosnian Spring, the name being taken from the Arab Spring, began in the northern town of Tuzla.

Clockwise from left:
1. The Executive Council Building burns after being hit by tank fire in Sarajevo.
2. May 1992; Ratko Mladić with Army of Republika Srpska officers.
3. A Norwegian UN peacekeeper in Sarajevo.

Bosnian War

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International armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

International armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

Clockwise from left:
1. The Executive Council Building burns after being hit by tank fire in Sarajevo.
2. May 1992; Ratko Mladić with Army of Republika Srpska officers.
3. A Norwegian UN peacekeeper in Sarajevo.
Ethnic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991
Serbian Autonomous Oblasts in November 1991
Carrington-Cutillero plan: Serbian cantons shown in red, Bosniak cantons in green, Croat cantons in blue
Alija Izetbegović during his visit to the United States in 1997
A victim of a mortar attack delivered to a Sarajevo hospital in 1992
Goran Jelisić shooting a Bosnian Muslim in Brčko in 1992
Model of the Čelebići camp, near Konjic, presented as evidence in the Mucić et al. trial
Map of Operation Corridor 92, fought between the VRS and the HV-HVO
Bodies of people killed in April 1993 around Vitez.
Novi Travnik in 1993, during the Croat–Bosniak War
Aerial photograph of destroyed buildings in Mostar
The front lines in the Lašva Valley in 1993 between the ARBiH and the HVO, including Novi Travnik, Vitez and Busovača
Damaged buildings in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo
UN troops on their way up "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina before the Dayton Agreement
Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman signing the final peace agreement in Paris on 14 December 1995.
A grave digger at a cemetery in Sarajevo, 1992
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Percent Change of Ethnic Bosniaks from 1991 to 2013
Ethnic distribution at the municipal level in Bosnia and Herzegovina before (1991) and after the war (1998)
The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide Victims
Exhumations in Srebrenica, 1996
The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari, 2007
Mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica massacre
A cemetery in Mostar flying the flag of Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (left), the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
First version of the Vance-Owen plan, which would have established 10 provinces
Bosniak province
Croat province
Serb province
Sarajevo district
Present-day administrative borders

However, in light of widespread NATO opposition to American (and possibly Turkish) endeavors in coordinating the "black flights of Tuzla", the United Kingdom and Norway expressed disapproval of these measures and their counterproductive effects on NATO enforcement of the arms embargo.

Tuzla Canton

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One of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of two entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

One of 10 cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one of two entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The cantonal seat is the city of Tuzla.

The location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green) in Europe

History of the Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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The history of Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina spans from the arrival of the first Bosnian Jews as a result of the Spanish Inquisition to the survival of the Bosnian Jews through the Holocaust and the Yugoslav Wars.

The history of Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina spans from the arrival of the first Bosnian Jews as a result of the Spanish Inquisition to the survival of the Bosnian Jews through the Holocaust and the Yugoslav Wars.

The location of Bosnia and Herzegovina (green) in Europe
Sephardi Jewish couple from Sarajevo in traditional clothing. Photo taken in 1900.
Rabbi Judah Alkalai and his spouse Esther in Vienna in 1874
The Sarajevo Ashkenazi Synagogue in 1914 on the banks of the Miljacka
Laura Papo Bohoreta
Interior of Sarajevo's Old Temple (before 1940)
Oskar Danon during practice with the Maribor Symphony Orchestra in 1961
Sven Alkalaj, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina from 2007 until 2012.
The Sarajevo Haggadah
Interior of Sarajevo's Ashkenazi Synagogue
Synagogue in Doboj
View from the Old Jewish Cemetery, Sarajevo
Former rabbinic seminar in Sarajevo
Višegrad Synagogue (1905-1941)
Višegrad Synagogue and train tunnel, 1910
Bijeljina Synagogue (1900-1941)
Banja Luka Synagogue (1884-1941)
Site of the proposed Mostar Synagogue
Sarajevo's Old Temple (Kal Vježu)
Sarajevo's New Temple (Kal Nuevo)
Sarajevo's Bjelave (Mejtaš) Synagogue (Kal di la Bilava)
Sarajevo's Ashkenazi Synagogue
Postcard of Il Kal Grande between 1932 and 1941
Sarajevo's Jewish Cemetery in a 1900 print
The grave of Rabbi Moshe Danon chief Rabbi of Sarajevo (1815-1830), Located in Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Jewish cemetery in Rogatica

Sephardic Jews have certainly had a stronger role in BiH, given that only in Sarajevo, Banja Luka and Tuzla separate Ashkenazi communities were active, whereas Tuzla was the only city in which the Ashkenazi were numerous (there Hilde Zaloscer was born).

Protests in Zenica, 10 February 2014

2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Protests in Zenica, 10 February 2014
Protests in Zenica on 7 February 2014.
Burning cars near Presidency palace, 7 February 2014
Municipality building in Zenica after the Bosnian social riots
Municipality Zenica building the day after the riot in February 2014
View at the Government Building of Tuzla Canton day after it was burned down; date: 8 February 2014
Zenica-Doboj Canton building the day after the riot in February 2014
The building of Kanton Sarajevo in June 2014, still bearing the marks of the February riots
The building of Kanton Sarajevo in June 2014, still bearing the marks of the February riots
The building of Kanton Sarajevo in June 2014, still bearing the marks of the February riots

The 2014 unrest in Bosnia and Herzegovina was a series of demonstrations and riots that began in the northern town of Tuzla on 4 February 2014 but quickly spread to multiple cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including Sarajevo, Zenica, Mostar, Jajce, and Brčko, among others, for social reasons and with the aim of overthrowing the government.

Sarajevo

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Capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits.

Capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits.

Sarajevo at twilight.
Sarajevo topographic map.
View of Sarajevo from a popular Yellow Bastion lookout.
Autumn in Sarajevo - Veliki Park.
A panoramic view of Sarajevo valley from "Yellow Bastion" (Žuta tabija) lookout, spring 2012.
Neolithic period Butmir vase.
Roman bridge, erected 1530 in Ilidža, built of remnants of an old Roman settlement.
The Sebilj is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Baščaršija square. The current structure is an 1891 reconstruction of the original, which burnt down in 1852.
Old stone bridge over the Koševski Potok (circa 1880; left), later demolished to give away space for a tram station; Ali Pasha Mosque (right).
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria arrives at the city hall on the day of his assassination, 28 June 1914.
The Latin Bridge was the site of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
The Sarajevo Red Line, a memorial event of the Siege of Sarajevo's 20th anniversary. 11,541 empty chairs symbolized 11,541 victims of the war which were killed during the Siege.
The signing of the Dayton Agreement in Paris ended the 3 1⁄2-year-long Bosnian War.
Building of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The four municipalities of the City of Sarajevo (Stari Grad, Centar, Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad) within the territory of Sarajevo Canton.
Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Trebević cable car taking visitors to mount Trebević from the city center.
Sarajevo Zoo.
Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements, 1991.
Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements, 2013.
Sarajevo tram.
Sarajevo Railway Station.
Sarajevo International Airport.
Observation deck top of Avaz Twist Tower.
Rectorate and the Faculty of Law, University of Sarajevo.
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina houses many important historical items from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A panoramic view of the ruined castle of Bijela Tabija "White Bastion" in the very east of Sarajevo.
Copies of the Sarajevo Haggadah.
Bijelo Dugme originated in Sarajevo; widely considered to have been the most popular band ever to exist in the former Yugoslavia and one of the most important acts of the Yugoslav rock scene. Pictured are Mladen Vojičić Tifa (left) and Goran Bregović (right).
Vedran Smailović playing a cello on top of the ruins of the National library in 1992.
Sarajevo Film Festival is held annually since 1995 at the National Theatre.
Bosnian football player Edin Džeko was born in Sarajevo. He is the all-time leading goalscorer of the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team.
Koševo City Stadium, home to FK Sarajevo, is the largest stadium in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Damir Džumhur, a Sarajevo born multi–Grand Slam tennis player.
Mirza Delibašić Hall, home venue of past European champion KK Bosna Royal.
Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque and Sarajevo Clock Tower.
Mosque courtyard.
Gazi Husrev-beg Library - Baščaršija Islamic School (Kurumlija Madrasa).
The Gazi Husrev-beg-Bazaar.
Pigeon Square.
Old Town.
Sarajevo Main Post office.
Sarajevo National Theatre design by Karel Pařík.
The Academy of Fine Arts was originally built to serve as an Evangelical Church in 1899.
Privredna banka Sarajevo.
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina established in 1896.
Health Institute in Sarajevo.
Iconic Sarajevo Holiday Inn (now Hotel Holiday) and UNITIC World Trade Towers.
Eternal flame.
View west toward parts of Novo Sarajevo.
Residential buildings in Novi Grad.
Bosmal City Center Towers, erected 2001.
Avaz Twist Tower, erected 2008.
BBI Centar, erected 2009.
Sarajevo City Center, erected 2014.
Sarajevo cable car, reopened in 2018.
Great Park (Veliki Park).
Koševo Park.
Vilsonovo Šetalište (Wilson's Promenade) along the Miljacka.
Great Lane (Velika aleja), Ilidža.
The spring of the Bosna river is in Sarajevo.
Emperor's Mosque.
Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos.
Sacred Heart Cathedral.
Sarajevo Synagogue.
Bosniak Institute, containing collections of the history of Bosnia and Bosniaks.
Museum "Sarajevo 1878–1918".
Alija Izetbegović museum.
Medieval tombstones around the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo Tunnel Museum.
MAN Centrotrans bus.
Sarajevo City Center, erected 2014.

The city is connected to all the other major cities by highway or national road like Zenica, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Mostar, Goražde and Foča.

The founder and commander of the Hadžiefendić Legion, Muhamed Hadžiefendić

Hadžiefendić Legion

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The founder and commander of the Hadžiefendić Legion, Muhamed Hadžiefendić

The Hadžiefendić Legion (Hadžiefendićeva legija) or Muslim Legion was a Bosniak self-defence militia and Croatian Home Guard unit based in the predominantly Muslim Tuzla region of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.

1992 Yugoslav People's Army column incident in Tuzla

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The 1992 Yugoslav People's Army column incident in Tuzla was an attack on the 92nd Motorized Brigade of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in the Bosnian city of Tuzla on 15 May 1992.

Map of the Bosniak diaspora worldwide

Bosniaks

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Today part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Today part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Map of the Bosniak diaspora worldwide
Genetic structure of Bosnians within European context according to three genetic systems: Autosomal DNA (A), Y-DNA (B) and mtDNA (C) per Kushniarevich et al. (2015)
The Bosniak Institute located in the city of Sarajevo.
Medieval monumental tombstones (Stećci) that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina are historically associated with the Bosnian Church movement
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Territorial evolution of the Bosnian Kingdom
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Although a Catholic, Fra Ivan Franjo Jukić considered himself Bosniak and advocated the preservation of a unified Bosniak nation across all three denominations in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Illustration of resistance during the siege of Sarajevo in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian troops.
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th century, especially after the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Balkan Wars, resulted in a large number of Muslim emigrants to Turkey, known as "Muhacirs".
Bosniaks formed 31%-50% of Bosnian-Herzegovinian Infantry of the Austro-Hungarian Army. BHI was commended for their bravery in service of the Austrian emperor in WWI, winning more medals than any other unit.
Mehmed Spaho was one of the most important members of the Bosniak Muslim community during the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia).
Bosniak Muslim soldiers of the SS "Handschar" reading a Nazi propaganda book, Islam und Judentum, in Nazi-occupied Southern France (Bundesarchiv, 21 June 1943)
The Sarajevo Red Line, a memorial event of the Siege of Sarajevo's 20th anniversary. 11,541 empty chairs symbolized 11,541 victims of the war which, according to Research and Documentation Center were killed during the Siege of Sarajevo.
Gravestones at the Potočari genocide memorial near Srebrenica. Around 8,000+ Bosniak men and boys were killed by the units of the Army of the Republika Srpska during the Srebrenica massacre in July 1995.
Buna river, near the town of Blagaj in southern Herzegovina. Blagaj is situated at the spring of the Buna river and a historical tekke (tekija or Dervish monastery). The Blagaj Tekija was built around 1520, with elements of Ottoman architecture and Mediterranean style and is considered a national monument.
Gazi Husrev-begova medresa or Kuršumli medresa, madrasa founded in 1537 in honor to Gazi Husrev Bey's mother Seldžuklija, in the old part of Sarajevo.
Bosniak girls dancing a traditional kolo dance
Gazi Husrev-beg mosque constructed in 1532 by the sanjak-bey of Bosnia Gazi Husrev-beg, located in Sarajevo.

During World War II, the Bosnian Muslim elite and notables issued resolutions or memorandums in various cities that publicly denounced Croat-Nazi collaborationist measures, laws and violence against Serbs: Prijedor (23 September), Sarajevo (the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims of 12 October), Mostar (21 October), Banja Luka (12 November), Bijeljina (2 December) and Tuzla (11 December).

Časlav, Prince of the Serbs

Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.

The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations (state-forming nations) of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.

Časlav, Prince of the Serbs
Chronological gradual expansion of the medieval state of Bosnia.
Balkans in 1350 according to German historian Gustav Droysen from the 19th century. Serbian Empire at its height, including the region of Bosnia.
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, UNESCO World Heritage Site, over the Drina
Refugees from Herzegovina, painting by Uroš Predić
Leaders and Heroes of the Uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina, illustration in the Serb calendar Orao (1876)
Occupied Bosnia & Herzegovina and Serbian Principalities of Montenegro and Serbia after the Berlin Congress of 1878. Both Montenegro and Serbia, as well as the Bosnian Serbs, were dissatisfied with the decision of the Congress to allow Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia & Herzegovina which were majority Serbian inhabited.
Map showing the proposals for creation of Banovina of Serbia, Banovina of Croatia and Slovene Banovina (in 1939–1941). Most of Bosnia was to be a part of Serbia, since the Serbs were the relative majority of the Bosnian population and the absolute majority on most of the territory.
Rebellion against Axis powers occupying Yugoslavia in 1941. Rebellion broke out mostly in Serb-inhabited areas, especially in Bosnia & Herzegovina.
Distribution of ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1961
Distribution of ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2013
Presidency Building, the official residence of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo
Palace of the Republic, the official residence of the President of Republika Srpska, Banja Luka
Work of Jovan Bijelić on Yugoslav stamp
Goražde Psalter
Bosanska vila, literary magazine
Filip Višnjić singing to gusle
Zdravko Čolić
Republika Srpska National Theatre
Handball Club Borac
Ozren Monastery
Interior of Old Orthodox Church in Sarajevo
Inside of Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Banja Luka
Banski Dvor
Dresses from East Herzegovina (left) and urban Bosnia (right) 1875.
Zmijanje embroidery, UNESCO World Cultural heritage
Serbian traditional dance (kolo) from Glamoč
Serbian traditional dance (kolo) from Glamoč

Around 1532, an Orthodox episcopate was established in Zvornik and transferred to Tuzla in 1852, becoming the Tuzla-Zvornik episcopate.