Two-party system

two party systemmajority partytwo major partiestwo-partytwo-party politicsminority partybipartidismtwomajor partiesmajority
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the political landscape.wikipedia
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Major party

major partiesmajormajor-party
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the political landscape.
It should not be confused with majority party.

Political party

political partiespartyparties
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the political landscape.
The United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties also participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates.

Third party (politics)

third partythird partiesthird-party
For example, in the United States, Jamaica, and Malta, the sense of two-party system describes an arrangement in which all or nearly all elected officials belong to one of the only two major parties, and third parties rarely win any seats in the legislature.
The distinction is particularly significant in two-party systems.

Politics of Australia

Australian politicsAustraliaAustralian politician
In contrast, in the United Kingdom and Australia and in other parliamentary systems and elsewhere, the term two-party system is sometimes used to indicate an arrangement in which two major parties dominate elections but in which there are viable third parties which do win seats in the legislature, and in which the two major parties exert proportionately greater influence than their percentage of votes would suggest. For example, the politics of Australia are largely two-party (the Liberal/National Coalition is often considered a single party at a national level due to their long-standing alliance in forming government and additionally rarely compete for the same seat) for the Australian House of Representatives, which is elected by instant-runoff voting, known within Australia as preferential voting.
Australia is the world's sixth oldest continuous democracy and largely operates as a two-party system in which voting is compulsory.

Politics of the United Kingdom

British politicsBritish politicianBritish Government
In countries such as Britain, two major parties emerge which have strong influence and tend to elect most of the candidates, but a multitude of lesser parties exist with varying degrees of influence, and sometimes these lesser parties are able to elect officials who participate in the legislature.Political systems based on the Westminster system, which is a particular style of parliamentary democracy based on the British model and found in many commonwealth countries, a majority party will form the government and the minority party will form the opposition, and coalitions of lesser parties are possible; in the rare circumstance in which neither party is the majority, a hung parliament arises.
Since the 1920s, the two dominant parties have been the Conservative Party and the Labour Party.

Politics of the United States

American politicianAmerican politicspolitician
For example, in the United States, Jamaica, and Malta, the sense of two-party system describes an arrangement in which all or nearly all elected officials belong to one of the only two major parties, and third parties rarely win any seats in the legislature.
Two political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, have dominated American politics since the American Civil War, although smaller parties exist such as the Libertarian Party, the Green Party and the Constitution Party.

Duverger's law

tendencytwo party system which first past the post rewards
A leading theory, referred to as Duverger's law, states that two parties are a natural result of a winner-take-all voting system.
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".

Multi-party system

multi-partymulti-party democracymultiparty
In some governments, certain chambers may resemble a two-party system and others a multi-party system.
Apart from one-party-dominant and two-party systems, multi-party systems tend to be more common in parliamentary systems than presidential systems and far more common in countries that use proportional representation compared to countries that use first-past-the-post elections.

Hung parliament

hung assemblyHungpolitical deadlock
In countries such as Britain, two major parties emerge which have strong influence and tend to elect most of the candidates, but a multitude of lesser parties exist with varying degrees of influence, and sometimes these lesser parties are able to elect officials who participate in the legislature.Political systems based on the Westminster system, which is a particular style of parliamentary democracy based on the British model and found in many commonwealth countries, a majority party will form the government and the minority party will form the opposition, and coalitions of lesser parties are possible; in the rare circumstance in which neither party is the majority, a hung parliament arises.
The term hung parliament is most often used of parliaments dominated by two major parties or coalitions.

Politics of Canada

Canadian politicsfederal governmentCanadian politician
In Canada, there is a multiparty system at the federal level and in the largest provinces of British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba as well as the smaller New Brunswick, Newfoundland And Labrador, Nova Scotia and Yukon Territory.
The two dominant political parties in Canada have historically been the Liberal Party of Canada and the Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors) Smaller parties like

Saskatchewan Party

SKPSaskatchewanSP
Examples include British Columbia (where the battles are between the New Democratic Party and the BC Liberals), Alberta (between the Alberta New Democratic Party and United Conservative Party), Saskatchewan (between the Saskatchewan Party and New Democratic Party), New Brunswick (between the Liberals and the Progressive Conservatives) and Prince Edward Island (between Liberals and Progressive Conservatives).
Saskatchewan politics has tended towards a two-party system, with third parties enjoying limited political success.

Australian Labor Party

LaborLabor PartyALP
Generally, a two-party system becomes a dichotomous division of the political spectrum with an ostensibly right-wing and left-wing party: the Nationalist Party vs. the Labour Party in Malta, Liberal/National Coalition vs. Labor in Australia, Republicans vs. Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
This attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a two-party system as very much the norm.

Plurality voting

majority votefirst past the postsingle-member
A leading theory, referred to as Duverger's law, states that two parties are a natural result of a winner-take-all voting system.
Duverger's law is a theory that constituencies that use first-past-the-post systems will have a two-party system, given enough time.

Malta

MalteseMaltese IslandsRepublic of Malta
Generally, a two-party system becomes a dichotomous division of the political spectrum with an ostensibly right-wing and left-wing party: the Nationalist Party vs. the Labour Party in Malta, Liberal/National Coalition vs. Labor in Australia, Republicans vs. Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
Maltese politics is a two-party system dominated by the Labour Party (Partit Laburista), a centre-left social democratic party, and the Nationalist Party (Partit Nazzjonalista), a centre-right Christian democratic party.

Australian Senate

SenateSenatorAustralian Senator
However, third parties are more common in the Australian Senate, which uses a proportional voting system more amenable to minor parties.
The proportional election system within each state ensures that the Senate incorporates more political diversity than the lower house, which is basically a two party body.

Democratic Action (Venezuela)

Democratic ActionAcción DemocráticaAD
Examples of this include National Liberation Party vs Social Christian Unity Party in Costa Rica, the peronista Justicialist Party vs Radical Civic Union in Argentina, Democratic Action vs COPEI in Venezuela, the Colombian Liberal Party (despite the name, a democratic socialist party) vs the Colombian Conservative Party in Colombia, Democratic Revolutionary Party vs Panameñista Party in Panama and Liberal Party vs National Party in Honduras.
After an intervening decade of dictatorship (1948–1958) saw AD excluded from power, four presidents came from Acción Democrática from the 1960s to the 1990s during the two-party system with Copei.

Social Christian Unity Party

PUSCSocial Christian UnityPartido Unidad Social Cristiana
Examples of this include National Liberation Party vs Social Christian Unity Party in Costa Rica, the peronista Justicialist Party vs Radical Civic Union in Argentina, Democratic Action vs COPEI in Venezuela, the Colombian Liberal Party (despite the name, a democratic socialist party) vs the Colombian Conservative Party in Colombia, Democratic Revolutionary Party vs Panameñista Party in Panama and Liberal Party vs National Party in Honduras.
From its foundation until 2006, the PUSC was one of Costa Rica's two dominant parties, alongside the National Liberation Party.

House of Representatives (Australia)

Australian House of RepresentativesHouse of RepresentativesMP
For example, the politics of Australia are largely two-party (the Liberal/National Coalition is often considered a single party at a national level due to their long-standing alliance in forming government and additionally rarely compete for the same seat) for the Australian House of Representatives, which is elected by instant-runoff voting, known within Australia as preferential voting.
A two-party system has existed in the Australian House of Representatives since the two non-Labor parties merged in 1909.

National Liberation Party (Costa Rica)

National Liberation PartyPLNPartido Liberación Nacional
Examples of this include National Liberation Party vs Social Christian Unity Party in Costa Rica, the peronista Justicialist Party vs Radical Civic Union in Argentina, Democratic Action vs COPEI in Venezuela, the Colombian Liberal Party (despite the name, a democratic socialist party) vs the Colombian Conservative Party in Colombia, Democratic Revolutionary Party vs Panameñista Party in Panama and Liberal Party vs National Party in Honduras.
Is after this time that Costa Rica enters a two-party system with PLN and PUSC as the two main political forces and between the two 90% of the vote casting.

Venezuela

VenezuelanBolivarian Republic of VenezuelaVEN
Examples of this include National Liberation Party vs Social Christian Unity Party in Costa Rica, the peronista Justicialist Party vs Radical Civic Union in Argentina, Democratic Action vs COPEI in Venezuela, the Colombian Liberal Party (despite the name, a democratic socialist party) vs the Colombian Conservative Party in Colombia, Democratic Revolutionary Party vs Panameñista Party in Panama and Liberal Party vs National Party in Honduras. Some of the first manifestations of this particularity was with the liberals and conservatives that often fought for power in all Latin America causing the first two-party systems in most Latin American countries which often lead to civil wars in places like Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Venezuela, the Central American Republic and Peru, with fights focusing specially on opposing/defending the privileges of the Catholic Church and the creole aristocracy.
Following the fall of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958, Venezuelan politics were dominated by the Third Way Christian democratic COPEI and the center-left social democratic Democratic Action (AD) parties; this two-party system was formalized by the puntofijismo arrangement.

Bipartisanship

bipartisanbi-partisanbipartisan coalition
Furthermore, the Lebanese Parliament is mainly made up of two bipartisan alliances.
Bipartisanship, sometimes referred to as nonpartisanship, is a political situation, usually in the context of a two-party system (especially those of the United States and some other western countries), in which opposing political parties find common ground through compromise.

Republican Party (United States)

RepublicanRepublican PartyR
Generally, a two-party system becomes a dichotomous division of the political spectrum with an ostensibly right-wing and left-wing party: the Nationalist Party vs. the Labour Party in Malta, Liberal/National Coalition vs. Labor in Australia, Republicans vs. Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Generally, a two-party system becomes a dichotomous division of the political spectrum with an ostensibly right-wing and left-wing party: the Nationalist Party vs. the Labour Party in Malta, Liberal/National Coalition vs. Labor in Australia, Republicans vs. Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main rival, the Republican Party.

Green Party of the United States

Green PartyGreenGreens
In the U.S., third parties include older ones such as the Libertarian Party and the Green Party and newer ones such as the Pirate Party.
The Declaration goes on to explain that Greens have a vital role in bringing democracy to the otherwise undemocratic two party system of the United States; that the Greens have a unique and independent identity as a third party, which cannot be subsumed into the Republican or Democratic parties; and that they cannot be dismissed by Republican or Democratic critics by implying that they are merely socialists or communists.

Dominant-party system

dominant-partyone party dominant statedominant party
As a whole, the nation has a two-party system, with the main parties since the mid-19th century being Democratic Party and the Republican Party.