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Commonwealth of the Philippines

PhilippinesCommonwealthPhilippine Commonwealth
Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines (direct elections to the Philippine Legislature had been held since 1907). The Tydings–McDuffie Act specified a procedural framework for the drafting of a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines within two years of its enactment.
It replaced the Insular Government, a United States territorial government, and was established by the Tydings–McDuffie Act.

73rd United States Congress

Seventy-third73rd73rd Congress
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
March 24, 1934: The Tydings–McDuffie Act provided for self-government for the Commonwealth of the Philippines and a pathway to independence.

Constitution of the Philippines

1987 ConstitutionConstitution1935 Constitution
Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines (direct elections to the Philippine Legislature had been held since 1907).
Though not a constitution itself, the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934 provided authority and defined mechanisms for the establishment of a formal constitution via a constitutional convention.

Millard Tydings

Millard E. TydingsMillard Evelyn TydingsSenator Tydings
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
With Alabama Representative John McDuffie, he co-sponsored the Philippine Independence Act, commonly known as the Tydings–McDuffie Act, which established an autonomous 10-year Commonwealth status for the Philippines.

Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act, is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period.

Manuel L. Quezon

Manuel QuezonQuezonPresident Quezon
In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Senate of the Philippines, headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, D.C. It successfully lobbied Congress and secured the act's passage.
He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and secured the passage of the Tydings–McDuffie Act in 1934.

John McDuffie

The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
He co-authored the Philippine Independence Act which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence from the United States after a period of ten years.

Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935

repatriated
The act also led to the Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935.
Both the Tydings–McDuffie Act and the Filipino Repatriation Act halted family reunification under U.S. immigration law, forcing many Filipino families to remain separate for a number of years.

History of the Philippines (1898–1946)

American colonial periodAmerican OccupationAmerican period
History of the Philippines (1898–1946)
Following the passage of the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, a Philippine presidential election was held in 1935.

Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act

Hare–Hawes–Cutting Independence ActHare–Hawes–Cutting Independence Bill
Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act
Subsequently, a new bill, the Tydings–McDuffie Act of 1934, was passed by the United States Government.

Law of the United States

American lawyerfederal lawUnited States federal law
The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act, is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines, then an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period.

President of the Philippines

PresidentPhilippine PresidentPresidents
Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines (direct elections to the Philippine Legislature had been held since 1907).

Philippine Legislature

bicameral legislature
Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines (direct elections to the Philippine Legislature had been held since 1907).

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Maryland

MDState of MarylandMd.
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Alabama

ALState of AlabamaAlabamian
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Franklin D. Roosevelt

RooseveltFranklin RooseveltPresident Roosevelt
The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings (Dem.) of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie (Dem.) of Alabama, and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Constitution

constitutionalconstitutional governmentconstitutions
The Tydings–McDuffie Act specified a procedural framework for the drafting of a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines within two years of its enactment.

Alien (law)

alienaliensforeigners
The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America.

United States nationality law

AmericanU.S. citizenUnited States
Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, and while they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.

Citizenship of the United States

AmericanU.S. citizenU.S. citizens
Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, and while they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.

President of the Senate of the Philippines

Senate PresidentPresident of the SenatePresident
In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Senate of the Philippines, headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, D.C. It successfully lobbied Congress and secured the act's passage.

Immigration Act of 1924

19241924 Immigration ActImmigration Act
This act extended the Asian-exclusion policy of the Immigration Act of 1924 to the soon-to-be-former territory.

Luce–Celler Act of 1946

Luce-Celler ActLuce–Celler Act
In 1946 the US decreased the tight restrictions of Tydings–McDuffie Act with the Luce–Celler Act of 1946, which increased the quota of Filipino immigrants to 100 per year and gave Filipinos the right to become naturalized American citizens.