Type XXI submarine

Type XXIType XXI U-boatGerman Type XXI submarineXXIType XXI U-boatsElektro Boat XXIGerman Type XXI U-Boatnew [Type XXI] submarinesType 21 U-boatType 241
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.wikipedia
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British Porpoise-class submarine

Porpoise''-classPorpoise'' classPorpoise''-class submarine
These include the Soviet, US, UK Porpoise and Swedish classes, all based on the Type XXI design to some extent.
Their design was, in many ways, influenced by the German World War II-era Type XXI U-boats.

Elektroboot

elektroboatshigh-technology electric U-boat
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.
The result was the "Elektroboot" series, the Type XXI U-boat and a short range Type XXIII U-boat, finalized in January 1943 but with production only commencing in 1944-1945.

Submarine

submarinesdiesel-electric submarinediesel-electric
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.
Germany went further with the Type XXI, a general predecessor of modern submarines, in which the pressure hull was fully enclosed inside the light hull, but optimized for submerged navigation, unlike earlier designs that were optimized for surface operation.

Submarine snorkel

snorkelSchnorchelsnorkeling
They incorporated many batteries to increase the time they could spend submerged, to as much as several days, and they only needed to surface to periscope depth for recharging via a snorkel.
However, by 1943 more U-boats were being lost, so the snorkel was retrofitted to the VIIC and IXC classes and designed into the new XXI and XXIII types.

Valentin submarine pens

ValentinFargeU-boot Bunker Valentin
It was planned that final assembly of Type XXI boats would eventually be carried out in the Valentin submarine pens, a massive, bomb–hardened concrete bunker built at the small port of Farge, near Bremen.
It was intended the facility would be used for the final assembly of Type XXI submarines, starting in April 1945 with three boats and from August 1945 a monthly delivery of a minimum of 14 boats.

Type VII submarine

Type VIICGerman Type VIIC submarinesType VIIC/41
The main features of the Type XXI were the hydrodynamically streamlined hull and conning tower and the large number of battery cells, roughly triple that of the German Type VII submarine.
Contracts were signed for 164 boats and a few boats were laid down, but all were cancelled on 30 September 1943 in favor of the new Type XXI, and none was advanced enough in construction to be launched.

Schichau-Werke

SchichauF Schichau GmbHF. Schichau
Between 1943 and 1945, 118 boats were assembled by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, AG Weser of Bremen and Schichau-Werke of Danzig.
In addition to the manufacture of Type VII C submarines, the shipyard in Danzig also built the revolutionary Type XXI U-boats.

Albert Speer

SpeerSpeer, AlbertMinistry of Armaments
One of the reasons for these shortcomings was that sections were made by companies having little experience with shipbuilding, after a decision by Albert Speer.
This belief proved incorrect, and Speer and Merker's attempt to build the Kriegsmarines new generation of submarines, the Type XXI and Type XXIII, as prefabricated sections at different facilities rather than at single dockyards contributed to the failure of this strategically important program.

Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program

GUPPYFleet SnorkelGUPPY IIA
The Type XXI design directly influenced advanced post-war submarines, the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program (GUPPY) improvements to the United States,, and -class submarines, and the Soviet submarine projects designated Whiskey, Zulu and Romeo by NATO.
The navy began the program by testing and reverse engineering two captured German Type XXI U-boats: U-2513 and U-3008.

Grand Slam (bomb)

Grand SlamGrand Slam bomb22,000 pound Grand Slam bomb
The facility was 90% completed when, during March 1945, it was heavily damaged by Allied bombing with Grand Slam "earthquake" bombs and abandoned.
The pen was intended to be the assembly plant for the Type XXI submarine and work had commenced in 1942.

List of Type XXI submarines

This is a complete list of German Type XXI submarines.

Blohm+Voss

Blohm & VossBlohm + VossBlohm and Voss
Between 1943 and 1945, 118 boats were assembled by Blohm & Voss of Hamburg, AG Weser of Bremen and Schichau-Werke of Danzig.

Bremerhaven

WesermündeGeestemündeBremerhaven, Germany
During 1984, it was made available for display to the public by the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (German Maritime Museum) in Bremerhaven, Germany.
The main attractions for tourists are found at the Havenwelten and include an attraction about climate change, the Klimahaus Bremerhaven 8° Ost, the German Emigration Center (since August 8, 2005) and the German Maritime Museum (Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum) by Hans Scharoun from 1975, featuring the Hansekogge, a vintage cog dating from 1380, excavated in Bremen in 1962, and the historical harbour (Museumshafen) with a number of museum ships, such as the Type XXI U-boat Wilhelm Bauer (a museum of its own), the Seute Deern (a wooden three-masted sailing vessel), and the salvage tug Seefalke from 1924.

Innes McCartney

Both and were found by nautical archaeologist Innes McCartney during his Operation Deadlight expeditions between 2001 and 2003.
Fourteen U-boats were surveyed and several new sites discovered including the rare Type XXI U-boat, U2506 once under the command of Horst von Schroeter and the successful Type IXC U-boat, U155 commanded by Adolf Piening.

FuG 200 Hohentwiel

Type F432 D2 Radar TransmitterFuG 200 ''HohentwielFuMO 63 Hohentwiel
The Type XXI boats were fitted with the FuMO 65 Hohentwiel U1 with the Type F432 D2 radar transmitter.
The Type F431 C1 was used on the Type VII and the Type F432 D2 on the Type XXI.

Clay Blair

Blair, ClayClay Blair Jr.Blair
Due to the combination of design and construction problems, historian Clay Blair judged that "the XXI could not have made a big difference in the Battle of the Atlantic.
Weir said that Blair "missed the point" by failing to appreciate the "technically and strategically revolutionary" nature of the Type XXI U-boat and preferring to focus on "solvable engineering problems".

Operation Deadlight

DeadlightOperation ''Deadlightsubsequently scuttled
Four other boats lie off the coast of Northern Ireland, where they were sunk during 1946 as part of Operation Deadlight.
Between 2001 and 2003, nautical archaeologist Innes McCartney discovered and surveyed fourteen of the U-boat wrecks; including the rare Type XXI U-boat U-2506, once under the command of Horst von Schroeter; the successful Type IXC U-boat, commanded by Adolf Piening and the U-778, which was the most promising salvage.

German Maritime Museum

Deutsches SchiffahrtsmuseumDeutschen SchifffahrtsmuseumGerman Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven
During 1984, it was made available for display to the public by the Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (German Maritime Museum) in Bremerhaven, Germany.

Diesel–electric transmission

diesel-electricdiesel electricElectric
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Type XXI submarines were a class of German diesel–electric Elektroboot (German: "electric boat") submarines designed during the Second World War.

Surface combatant

surface shipsurface combatantssurface warships
They were the first submarines designed to operate primarily submerged, rather than spending most of their time as surface ships that could submerge for brief periods as a means to escape detection.

Soviet Navy

SovietNavyRed Navy
These include the Soviet, US, UK Porpoise and Swedish classes, all based on the Type XXI design to some extent.

Royal Navy

RNBritish NavyBritish Royal Navy
These include the Soviet, US, UK Porpoise and Swedish classes, all based on the Type XXI design to some extent.

Swedish Navy

Royal Swedish NavyNavySwedish
These include the Soviet, US, UK Porpoise and Swedish classes, all based on the Type XXI design to some extent.

Torpedo

torpedoeshoming torpedotorpedoed
It featured an electric torpedo-reloading system that allowed all six bow torpedo tubes to be reloaded faster than a Type VIIC could reload one tube.