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Chocolate

chocolatescocoacacao
Chocolate is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. :*Couverture chocolate is a high-quality class of dark chocolate, containing a high percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter, and precisely tempered.
Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar.

Vevey

Vevey, SwitzerlandFête des Vignerons'' (1999 Vevey, Switzerland)Vevay
In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, which had been invented by Henri Nestlé, who was Peter's neighbour in Vevey.
Milk chocolate was invented in Vevey by Daniel Peter in 1875, with the aid of Henri Nestlé.

Cadbury

Cadbury SchweppesCadbury UKCadburys
Cadbury is the leading brand of milk chocolate in the United Kingdom.
In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars.

Dark chocolate

darkblack chocolatedark (plain) chocolate
* Dark chocolate, also known as "plain chocolate", is produced using a higher percentage of cocoa with all fat content coming from cocoa butter instead of milk, but there are also "dark milk" chocolates and many degrees of hybrids.
Dark chocolate (also known as black chocolate, plain chocolate, or sour chocolate) is a form of chocolate containing cocoa solids, cocoa butter and sugar, without the milk found in milk chocolate.

Daniel Peter

In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, which had been invented by Henri Nestlé, who was Peter's neighbour in Vevey.
A neighbour of Henri Nestlé in Vevey, he was one of the first chocolatiers to make milk chocolate, in 1875 or 1876, by adding powdered milk to the chocolate.

Cocoa butter

cacao buttercacao fatcocoa
Chocolate is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery. Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fat, usually tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not legally be called "chocolate". cocoa butter is the fatty component of the bean.
Cocoa butter is a major ingredient in practically all types of chocolates (white chocolate, milk chocolate, and dark chocolate).

Chocolate liquor

cocoacocoa liquorcocoa mass
chocolate liquor is the ground or melted state of the nib of the cacao bean, containing roughly equal parts cocoa butter and solids.
* Types of chocolate

Lindt & Sprüngli

LindtLindt CafeLindt Chocolate Café
Popular brands of couverture chocolate used by pastry chefs include: Valrhona, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger, Callebaut, and Guittard.

Guittard Chocolate Company

GuittardGuittard ChocolateGuittard family of chocolatiers
Popular brands of couverture chocolate used by pastry chefs include: Valrhona, Lindt & Sprüngli, Scharffen Berger, Callebaut, and Guittard.
The company produces cocoa, chocolate syrup, milk chocolate balls and eggs, baking chips, as well as mints and mint wafers.

Henri Nestlé

In 1875, a Swiss confectioner, Daniel Peter, developed the first solid milk chocolate using condensed milk, which had been invented by Henri Nestlé, who was Peter's neighbour in Vevey.
Nestlé's milk-condensation process enabled the chocolatier Daniel Peter, of Vevey, to perfect his milk chocolate formulation in 1875, after seven years of effort, and the two men subsequently formed a partnership which resulted, four years later, in 1879, in the organisation of the Nestlé Company, which eventually became one of the largest of Europe-based confection industries.

White chocolate

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White chocolate is made of sugar, milk, and cocoa butter, without the cocoa solids. It is pale ivory color, and lacks many of the compounds found in milk and dark chocolates. It remains solid at room temperature as that is below the melting point of cocoa butter.
The melting point of cocoa butter, the only cocoa bean component of white chocolate, is high enough to keep white chocolate solid at room temperature, just like milk chocolate or dark chocolate.

Nestlé

NestleHelados SavorySavory
In March 2007, the Chocolate Manufacturers Association, whose members include Hershey's, Nestlé, and Archer Daniels Midland, began lobbying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to change the legal definition of chocolate to allow the substitution of "safe and suitable vegetable fats and oils" (including partially hydrogenated vegetable oils) for cocoa butter in addition to using "any sweetening agent" (including artificial sweeteners) and milk substitutes.
In 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestlé developed milk-based baby food and soon began marketing it. The following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process.

Couverture chocolate

couverturedark chocolatechocolate couverture
:*Couverture chocolate is a high-quality class of dark chocolate, containing a high percentage of cocoa solids and cocoa butter, and precisely tempered.
Types of chocolate

Baking chocolate

Baking chocolate containing no added sugar may be labeled "unsweetened chocolate".
* Types of chocolate

Compound chocolate

chocolateychocolatey coatingvekao
Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fat, usually tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not legally be called "chocolate".
A chocolatier tempers chocolate by cooling the chocolate mass below its setting point, then rewarming the chocolate to between 31 and 32 C for milk chocolate, or between 32 and 33 C for semi-sweet chocolate.

Chocolate bar

chocolate barsbarcandy bars
Chocolate bar
The relative presence or absence of these define the subclasses of chocolate bar made of dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and white chocolate.

Raw chocolate

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Raw chocolate is chocolate that has not been processed, heated, or mixed with other ingredients. It is sold in chocolate-growing countries, and to a much lesser extent in other countries, often promoted as healthy.
Types of chocolate

Modeling chocolate

chocolate molding
Modeling chocolate is a chocolate paste made by melting chocolate and combining it with corn syrup, glucose syrup, or golden syrup. It is primarily used by cakemakers and pâtisseries to add decoration to cakes and pastries.
Modeling chocolate can be made from white, dark, or milk chocolate.

Candy making

soft-ball stagecandy makerhard crack
Candy making
Types of chocolate

Powdered sugar

icing sugarconfectioner's sugarconfectioners' sugar
Chocolate is a range of foods derived from cocoa (cacao), mixed with fat (e.g., cocoa butter) and finely powdered sugar to produce a solid confectionery.

Cocoa bean

cocoacacaocacao bean
The cocoa bean products from which chocolate is made are known under different names in different parts of the world.

Vegetable oil

oilseedoilseedsoil
Compound chocolate is the name for a confection combining cocoa with other vegetable fat, usually tropical fats or hydrogenated fats, as a replacement for cocoa butter. It is often used for candy bar coatings. In many countries it may not legally be called "chocolate". cocoa butter is the fatty component of the bean.

Temperature

temperaturesair temperaturewarm
Other flavours can be obtained by varying the time and temperature when roasting the beans.

Powdered milk

milk powderdried milkmilk solids
*Milk chocolate is solid chocolate made with milk added in the form of powdered milk, liquid milk, or condensed milk.