Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptionseruptionseruptederuptingeruptseruptexplosive eruptionmagmatic
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.wikipedia
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Volcanic ash

ashash cloudash fall
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.

Hawaiian eruption

Hawaiianeffusiveeruptions
The weakest are Hawaiian and submarine, then Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan. They range in intensity from the relatively small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii.
A Hawaiian eruption is a type of volcanic eruption where lava flows from the vent in a relatively gentle, low level eruption; it is so named because it is characteristic of Hawaiian volcanoes.

Plinian eruption

PlinianeruptionSub-plinian
The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called "Ultra-Plinian." They range in intensity from the relatively small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii.
Plinian eruptions or Vesuvian eruptions are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, which destroyed the ancient Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Volcanology

volcanologistsvolcanologistvulcanology
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, especially active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra (such as ash or pumice), rock and lava samples.

Effusive eruption

effusiveeffusive activityeffusive volcanism
There are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of very fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content.
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.

Explosive eruption

explosiveexplosive activityexplosive eruptions
There are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions.
In volcanology, an explosive eruption is a volcanic eruption of the most violent type.

Volcanic Explosivity Index

VEIvolcanic explosivity index (VEI)VEI 5
An important measure of eruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI), an order of magnitude scale ranging from 0 to 8 that often correlates to eruptive types. The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, which ripped apart the volcano's summit, was a Plinian eruption of Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 5.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

Lateral eruption

lateral blastflank eruptiondirectional blast
Some volcanoes exhibit lateral and fissure eruptions.
A lateral eruption, also called a flank eruption or lateral blast if explosive, is a volcanic eruption that takes place on the flanks of a volcano instead of at the summit.

1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

1980 eruptioneruption of Mount St. Helens1980 Mount St. Helens eruption
The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, which ripped apart the volcano's summit, was a Plinian eruption of Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 5.
On May 18, 1980, a major volcanic eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens, a volcano located in Skamania County, in the U.S. state of Washington.

2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull

Eyjafjallajökulleruption2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull
Seismic activity started at the end of 2009 and gradually increased in intensity until on 20 March 2010, a small eruption started rated as a 1 on the volcanic explosivity index.

Peléan eruption

PeléanPelean domesPeléan phase
The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions; the strongest eruptions are called "Ultra-Plinian."
Peléan eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption.

Supervolcano

supervolcanicsupereruptionsupervolcanoes
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).

Toba catastrophe theory

Toba eruptionToba catastropheToba supereruption
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.

Lava

lava flowlava flowspahoehoe
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. They range in intensity from the relatively small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii. Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of very fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1200 C. The structures resulting from subsequent solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava.

Eruption column

ash columnash plumeplume
They range in intensity from the relatively small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii.
An eruption column is a cloud of super-heated ash and tephra suspended in gases emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption.

Lava lake

lava lakes
Another Hawaiian volcanic feature is the formation of active lava lakes, self-maintaining pools of raw lava with a thin crust of semi-cooled rock; there are currently only 6 such lakes in the world, and the one at Kīlauea's Kupaianaha vent is one of them.
from one or more vents in a crater that erupts enough lava to partially fill the crater; or

Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesextinct volcano
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
A popular way of classifying magmatic volcanoes is by their frequency of eruption, with those that erupt regularly called active, those that have erupted in historical times but are now quiet called dormant or inactive, and those that have not erupted in historical times called extinct. However, these popular classifications—extinct in particular—are practically meaningless to scientists.

Lake Toba

TobaToba supervolcanoDanau Toba
The strongest types of eruptions, with a VEI of 8, are so-called "Ultra-Plinian" eruptions, such as the one at Lake Toba 74 thousand years ago, which put out 2800 times the material erupted by Mount St. Helens in 1980.
This last eruption had an estimated VEI=8, making it the largest-known explosive volcanic eruption within the last 25 million years.

Galeras

Galeras VolcanoSFF Galeras
It has erupted frequently since the Spanish conquest, with its first historical eruption being recorded on December 7, 1580.

Magma chamber

chambermagma reservoirmagmatic systems
The process powering Plinian eruptions starts in the magma chamber, where dissolved volatile gases are stored in the magma. Although they are associated with felsic magma, Plinian eruptions can just as well occur at basaltic volcanoes, given that the magma chamber differentiates and has a structure rich in silicon dioxide.
If it finds its way to the surface, then the result will be a volcanic eruption; consequently, many volcanoes are situated over magma chambers.

Igneous differentiation

differentiationmagmatic differentiationdifferentiated
Although they are associated with felsic magma, Plinian eruptions can just as well occur at basaltic volcanoes, given that the magma chamber differentiates and has a structure rich in silicon dioxide.
In geology, igneous differentiation, or magmatic differentiation, is an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement, or eruption.

Magma

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The third eruptive type is the phreatic eruption, which is driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma; these eruptive types often exhibit no magmatic release, instead causing the granulation of existing rock.
Magma can remain in a chamber until it cools and crystallizes forming igneous rock, it erupts as a volcano, or moves into another magma chamber.There are two known processes by which magma changes: by crystallization within the crust or mantle to form a pluton, or by volcanic eruption to become lava or tephra.

Volcanic gas

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Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of very fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content.
In explosive volcanic eruptions, the sudden release of gases from magma may cause rapid movements of the molten rock.

Saint-Pierre, Martinique

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The 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée caused tremendous destruction, killing more than 30,000 people and completely destroying the town of St. Pierre, the worst volcanic event in the 20th century.
Before the total destruction of Saint-Pierre in 1902 by a volcanic eruption, it was the most important city of Martinique culturally and economically, being known as "the Paris of the Caribbean".

Subglacial eruption

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Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, and vary in strength.
Types of volcanic eruptions