Typesetting

typesettercompositortypesettypedigital typesettingcompositorsformattingtext formattingtype-settingtypesetters
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents.wikipedia
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Sort (typesetting)

metal typetypesort
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical types or the digital equivalents.
In typesetting by hand compositing, a sort or type is a piece of type representing a particular letter or symbol, cast from a matrix mold and assembled with other sorts bearing additional letters into lines of type to make up a form from which a page is printed.

Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizes
Typesetting requires one or more fonts (which are widely but erroneously confused with and substituted for typefaces).
In a manual printing (letterpress) house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page.

Linotype machine

Linotypelinotype operatorlinotypist
The Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, and cast an entire line of type at a time (hence its name).
Linotype became one of the mainstay methods to set type, especially small-size body text, for newspapers, magazines, and posters from the late 19th century to the 1970s and 1980s, when it was largely replaced by phototypesetting and computer typesetting.

Typewriter

typewriterselectric typewritertypewritten
Advances such as the typewriter and computer would push the state of the art even farther ahead.
In metal typesetting, é, ñ, and others were separate sorts.

Paige Compositor

typesetting machine
While some, such as the Paige compositor, met with limited success, by the end of the 19th century, several methods had been devised whereby an operator working a keyboard or other devices could produce the desired text.
It was designed to replace the human typesetter of a lead type-composed printing form with a mechanical arm.

Atex (software)

AtexATEX typesetting systemPolopoly Web CMS
Early minicomputer-based typesetting software introduced in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex, Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs, and IBM's Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.
It participated in much of the change in the print industry involving the move from hot-metal through photo and then laser typesetting, culminating in computer to plate (CTP).

Letterpress printing

letterpressletterpress printerletterpress printers
During much of the letterpress era, movable type was composed by hand for each page.
The labor-intensive nature of the typesetting and need to store vast amounts of lead or wooden type resulted in the letterpress printing process falling out of favour.

Galley proof

galley proofsgalleysproofs
Photosensitive paper was exposed to light through the negative film, resulting in a column of black type on white paper, or a galley.
The compositor, typesetter, or printer receives the edited copies, corrects and re-arranges the type or the pagination, and arranges for the press workers to print the final or published copies.

HTML

Hypertext Markup LanguageHTML 3.2HTML 4
The descendants of these text markup languages include SGML, XML and HTML.
HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text, images, and other material into visual or audible web pages.

Markup language

markupmarkup languagestext encoding
Early minicomputer-based typesetting software introduced in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex, Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs, and IBM's Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.
For centuries, this task was done primarily by skilled typographers known as "markup men" or "d markers" who marked up text to indicate what typeface, style, and size should be applied to each part, and then passed the manuscript to others for typesetting by hand or machine.

Desktop publishing

DTPDesktop publishing softwaredigital typography
In 1985, desktop publishing became available, starting with the Apple Macintosh, Aldus PageMaker (and later QuarkXPress) and PostScript.
(Desktop typesetting with only limited page makeup facilities had arrived in 1978–1979 with the introduction of TeX, and was extended in 1985 with the introduction of LaTeX.)

Phototypesetting

cold typephototypesetterphotocomposition
Phototypesetting or "cold type" systems first appeared in the early 1960s and rapidly displaced continuous casting machines.
Phototypesetting is a method of setting type, rendered obsolete with the popularity of the personal computer and desktop publishing software, that uses a photographic process to generate columns of type on a scroll of photographic paper.

TeX

TeX Users GroupTUGPlain TeX
The TeX system, developed by Donald E. Knuth at the end of the 1970s, is another widespread and powerful automated typesetting system that has set high standards, especially for typesetting mathematics. LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX are variants of TeX and of LaTeX scriptable in Lua.
TeX (, see below), stylized within the system as Te X, is a typesetting system (or a "formatting system") which was designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.

GNU TeXmacs

TeXmacsTeXmacs format
These programs include Scientific Workplace, TeXmacs, MiKTeX and LyX, which are graphical/interactive editors.
GNU TeXmacs is a scientific word processor and typesetting component of the GNU Project.

LuaTeX

LuaLaTeXLua
LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX are variants of TeX and of LaTeX scriptable in Lua.
LuaTeX is a TeX-based computer typesetting system which started as a version of pdfTeX with a Lua scripting engine embedded.

Lout (software)

Lout
Notably Lout, Patoline, Sile, Pollen, Ant
Lout is a batch document formatter invented by Jeffrey H. Kingston.

LaTeX

LaTeX2HTMLHlineLaTeX2e
LuaTeX and LuaLaTeX are variants of TeX and of LaTeX scriptable in Lua.
LaTeX uses the TeX typesetting program for formatting its output, and is itself written in the TeX macro language.

LyX

The LyX Project
These programs include Scientific Workplace, TeXmacs, MiKTeX and LyX, which are graphical/interactive editors.
LyX (styled as ; pronounced ) is an open source document processor based on the LaTeX typesetting system.

MiKTeX

These programs include Scientific Workplace, TeXmacs, MiKTeX and LyX, which are graphical/interactive editors.
MiKTeX is a free distribution of the TeX/LaTeX typesetting system for Microsoft Windows (and for Mac and certain Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Debian and Fedora).

Orthographic ligature

ligatureligaturestypographic ligature
Ligature use fell as the number of traditional hand compositors and hot metal typesetting machine operators dropped because of the mass production of the IBM Selectric brand of electric typewriter in 1961.

Composing stick

In letterpress printing and typesetting, a composing stick is a tray-like tool used to assemble pieces of metal type into words and lines, which are then transferred to a galley before being locked into a forme and printed.

Strut (typesetting)

In typesetting, a strut is an invisible character or element, used to ensure that a text has a minimum height and depth, even if no other elements are included.

Prepress

pre-pressdigital prepresspre-production techniques

Printing press

pressprinting pressesprinting-press
Gutenberg greatly improved the process by treating typesetting and printing as two separate work steps.

SCRIPT (markup)

SCRIPTDocument Composition FacilitySCRIPT/VS
Early minicomputer-based typesetting software introduced in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex, Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs, and IBM's Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.