Typhoon Mindulle (2016)

MindulleTyphoon Mindulle
Typhoon Mindulle was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Japan in late August 2016.wikipedia
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2016 Pacific typhoon season

2016annual typhoon seasonTropical Storm Tokage (2016)
It was the ninth named storm and the second typhoon of the annual typhoon season in 2016. However, an upper-level low to the north and the predecessor of Tropical Storm Kompasu to the northeast were stifling the development of any poleward outflow.
| Mindulle || || bgcolor=#| || bgcolor=#||| bgcolor=#| || Mariana Islands, Japan || || ||

Tropical Storm Talas (2011)

TalasTropical Storm TalasTyphoon Talas
Tropical Storm Talas (2011)
Typhoon Mindulle (2016)

Typhoon Man-yi (2013)

Typhoon Man-yiMan-yiTyphoon 18
Typhoon Man-yi (2013)
Typhoon Mindulle (2016)

Tropical cyclone

hurricanetropical stormhurricanes
Typhoon Mindulle was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Japan in late August 2016.

Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
Typhoon Mindulle was a strong tropical cyclone which affected Japan in late August 2016. Moving on the eastern edge of a relatively high-latitude monsoon gyre and being steered by the southern extension of the subtropical ridge anchored east of Japan, the intensification of Mindulle was limited on August 20, owing to modest dry air entrainment resulting in flaring convection near and surrounding the LLCC.

Typhoon

typhoonsWestern Pacificwestern Pacific basin
It was the ninth named storm and the second typhoon of the annual typhoon season in 2016. With warm sea surface temperatures of between 30 to 31 C, good equatorward and poleward outflow channels, as well as low vertical wind shear, the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a typhoon at around 03:00 JST on August 22 (18:00 UTC on August 21), when the center was located only about 40 km east of Hachijō-jima.

Japan Meteorological Agency

JMAJapan Meteorological Agency (JMA)Meteorological Agency
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

1900 Pacific typhoon season

Guam🇬🇺GU
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)JTWCNaval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

TCFAgoodTropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA)
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

Convection

convectiveconvection currentsconvection current
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) indicated that a tropical depression had formed northwest of Guam at noon on August 17. A few hours later, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) quickly issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert and also upgraded the system to a tropical depression with the designation 10W on the same day, based on increased symmetric convection associated with a defined but partially exposed low-level circulation center (LLCC) that was embedded within the southwest monsoon surge.

Dvorak technique

Dvorak classificationsDvorakDvorak estimates
One day later, the JTWC upgraded 10W to a tropical storm via the Dvorak technique, with the winds proved by a recent scatterometer pass.

Scatterometer

Advanced ScatterometerASCATASCAT-B
One day later, the JTWC upgraded 10W to a tropical storm via the Dvorak technique, with the winds proved by a recent scatterometer pass.

Cold-core low

upper-level lowcold-coreupper-level trough
However, an upper-level low to the north and the predecessor of Tropical Storm Kompasu to the northeast were stifling the development of any poleward outflow.

Outflow (meteorology)

outflowinflowoutflow channel
However, an upper-level low to the north and the predecessor of Tropical Storm Kompasu to the northeast were stifling the development of any poleward outflow.

Horse latitudes

subtropical ridgesubtropical anticyclonesubtropical high
Moving on the eastern edge of a relatively high-latitude monsoon gyre and being steered by the southern extension of the subtropical ridge anchored east of Japan, the intensification of Mindulle was limited on August 20, owing to modest dry air entrainment resulting in flaring convection near and surrounding the LLCC.

Chichijima

ChichiChichi JimaChichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands
Although the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a severe tropical storm when it was approximately 380 km northwest of Chichi-jima at around 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC) on August 21, outflow from Tropical Storm Lionrock to the west was inhibiting further development and causing a partially exposed LLCC with deep convection displaced southward, as the distance between their centers was only about 600 km at that time.

Japan Standard Time

JSTUTC+9UTC+09:00
Although the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a severe tropical storm when it was approximately 380 km northwest of Chichi-jima at around 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC) on August 21, outflow from Tropical Storm Lionrock to the west was inhibiting further development and causing a partially exposed LLCC with deep convection displaced southward, as the distance between their centers was only about 600 km at that time.

Coordinated Universal Time

UTCUTC-3UTC-4
Although the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a severe tropical storm when it was approximately 380 km northwest of Chichi-jima at around 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC) on August 21, outflow from Tropical Storm Lionrock to the west was inhibiting further development and causing a partially exposed LLCC with deep convection displaced southward, as the distance between their centers was only about 600 km at that time.

Typhoon Lionrock (2016)

Typhoon LionrockLionrockTropical Storm Lionrock
Although the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a severe tropical storm when it was approximately 380 km northwest of Chichi-jima at around 15:00 JST (06:00 UTC) on August 21, outflow from Tropical Storm Lionrock to the west was inhibiting further development and causing a partially exposed LLCC with deep convection displaced southward, as the distance between their centers was only about 600 km at that time.

Sea surface temperature

sea surface temperatureswater temperaturesocean temperatures
With warm sea surface temperatures of between 30 to 31 C, good equatorward and poleward outflow channels, as well as low vertical wind shear, the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a typhoon at around 03:00 JST on August 22 (18:00 UTC on August 21), when the center was located only about 40 km east of Hachijō-jima.

Wind shear

windshearvertical wind shearshear
With warm sea surface temperatures of between 30 to 31 C, good equatorward and poleward outflow channels, as well as low vertical wind shear, the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a typhoon at around 03:00 JST on August 22 (18:00 UTC on August 21), when the center was located only about 40 km east of Hachijō-jima.

Hachijō-jima

Hachijo IslandHachijoHachijō
With warm sea surface temperatures of between 30 to 31 C, good equatorward and poleward outflow channels, as well as low vertical wind shear, the JMA upgraded Mindulle to a typhoon at around 03:00 JST on August 22 (18:00 UTC on August 21), when the center was located only about 40 km east of Hachijō-jima.