Typography

typographertypographictypographicaltypographerstypographicallytypographedtypetype designertypeface designertext
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.wikipedia
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Typeface

fonttypefacesfonts
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

Point (typography)

pointpointsfont size
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, the point is the smallest unit of measure.

Line length

Measure (typography)line lengthslines
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, line length is the width of a block of typeset text, usually measured in units of length like inches or points or in characters per line (in which case it is a measure).

Letter-spacing

trackingfixed spacesletterspacing
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, letter-spacing, also referred to as tracking by typographers, refers to an optically consistent degree of increase (or sometimes decrease) of space between letters to affect visual density in a line or block of text.

Leading

leadsline spacingInterline spacing
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, leading refers to the distance between adjacent lines of type; however, the exact definition has become confused.

Kerning

kernkernedKern (typography)
The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing (leading), and letter-spacing (tracking), and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning ).
In typography, kerning is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result.

Readability

reading levelreadableATOS level
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.

Graphic designer

graphic artistgraphic designersgraphic artists
Typography is the work of typesetters (also known as compositors), typographers, graphic designers, art directors, manga artists, comic book artists, graffiti artists, and, now, anyone who arranges words, letters, numbers, and symbols for publication, display, or distribution, from clerical workers and newsletter writers to anyone self-publishing materials.
A graphic designer is a professional within the graphic design and graphic arts industry who assembles together images, typography, or motion graphics to create a piece of design.

Legibility

legible
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
Other typographic factors that affect readability include font choice, point size, kerning, cases used, tracking, line length, leading, and justification.

Herbert E. Brekle

Herbert BrekleBrekle, Herbert E.
Typography also was implemented in the Phaistos Disc, an enigmatic Minoan printed item from Crete, which dates to between 1850 and 1600 B.C. It has been proposed that Roman lead pipe inscriptions were created with movable type printing, but German typographer Herbert Brekle recently dismissed this view.
Herbert Ernst Brekle (11 June 1935 – 6 May 2018) was a German typographer and linguist.

Movable type

moveable typeinvention of the printing presstype
Typography with movable type was invented during the eleventh-century Song dynasty in China by Bi Sheng (990–1051).
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual alphanumeric characters or punctuation marks) usually on the medium of paper.

Prüfening dedicatory inscription

extant dedicatory inscriptionPruefening Abbey inscriptionPrüfening inscription
The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119 that was created by the same technique as the Phaistos Disc.
The Prüfening dedicatory inscription (Prüfeninger Weiheinschrift) is a high medieval inscription impressed on clay which was created in 1119, over three hundred years before Johannes Gutenberg, by the typographic principle.

Type–token distinction

typestokentype
The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119 that was created by the same technique as the Phaistos Disc.
The distinction is important in disciplines such as logic, linguistics, metalogic, typography, and computer programming.

Punchcutting

punchcutterpunchesCounterpunch (typography)
Gutenberg developed specialized techniques for casting and combining cheap copies of letter punches in the vast quantities required to print multiple copies of texts.
Punchcutting is a craft used in traditional typography to cut letter punches in steel as the first stage of making metal type.

Serif

old-styleTransitionalserifs
Greek lapidary letters were carved into stone and "one of the first formal uses of Western letterforms"; after that, Roman lapidary letterforms evolved into the monumental capitals, which laid the foundation for Western typographical design, especially serif typefaces.
In typography, a serif is a small line or stroke regularly attached to the end of a larger stroke in a letter or symbol within a particular font or family of fonts.

Letterform

letterformsletter-forms
Greek lapidary letters were carved into stone and "one of the first formal uses of Western letterforms"; after that, Roman lapidary letterforms evolved into the monumental capitals, which laid the foundation for Western typographical design, especially serif typefaces.
A letterform, letter-form or letter form, is a term used especially in typography, paleography, calligraphy and epigraphy to mean a letter's shape.

Lettering

custom-designed letteringdisplay letteringhand-lettered
In addition, the evolution of typography is inextricably intertwined with lettering by hand and related art forms, especially formal styles, which thrived for centuries preceding typography, and so the evolution of typography must be discussed with reference to this relationship.
In art, graphic design and typography, lettering refers to the creation of hand-drawn letters to apply to an object or surface.

Phaistos Disc

Disc of PhaistosDiskos of PhaistosPhaistos
Typography also was implemented in the Phaistos Disc, an enigmatic Minoan printed item from Crete, which dates to between 1850 and 1600 B.C. It has been proposed that Roman lead pipe inscriptions were created with movable type printing, but German typographer Herbert Brekle recently dismissed this view.
The German typesetter and linguist Herbert Brekle, in his article "The typographic principle" in the Gutenberg-Jahrbuch, argues that the Phaistos Disc is an early document of movable type printing, since it meets the essential criterion of typographic printing, that of type identity:

Altarpiece of Pellegrino II

altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrino IIaltarpiece of patriarch Pellegrinus IIaltarpiece of Pellegrinus II
The silver altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrinus II (1195–1204) in the cathedral of Cividale was printed with individual letter punches.
The piece is notable for its rich ornamentation and its early typographic inscription.

Calligraphy

calligraphercalligraphiccalligraphers
Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both.

David Carson (graphic designer)

David Carson
David Carson is often associated with this movement, particularly for his work in Ray Gun magazine in the 1990s.
He is best known for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography.

Printing

Printprintedprinter
This technical breakthrough was instrumental in starting the Printing Revolution and the first book printed with lead-based movable type was the Gutenberg Bible.
Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches.

Printing press

pressprinting pressesprinting-press
Modern lead-based movable type, along with the mechanical printing press, is most often attributed to the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in 1439.
In Europe, sporadic evidence that the typographical principle, the idea of creating a text by reusing individual characters, was well understood and employed in pre-Gutenberg Europe had been cropping up since the 12th century and possibly before.

Sans-serif

sans serifgrotesquehumanist sans-serif
A current fashion is to pair a sans-serif typeface for headings with a high-performance serif typeface of matching style for the text of an article.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.

Cartographic labeling

Labeling (map design)labellabeled
Cartographic labeling is a form of typography and strongly deals with form, style, weight and size of type on a map.