Tyrosine kinase

tyrosine kinasesprotein-tyrosine kinaseprotein tyrosine kinasetyrosine protein kinaseprotein tyrosine kinasestyrosinetyrosine-kinasec-kitprotein tyrosine-kinaseproto-oncogene protein C-kit
A tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein in a cell.wikipedia
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Protein kinase

protein kinasestransmembranekinases
Tyrosine kinases are a subclass of protein kinase.
Most kinases act on both serine and threonine (serine/threonine kinases), others act on tyrosine (tyrosine kinases), and a number act on all three (dual-specificity kinases).

Protein tyrosine phosphatase

tyrosine phosphataseprotein tyrosine phosphatasesPTP
Most tyrosine kinases have an associated protein tyrosine phosphatase, which removes the phosphate group.
Together with tyrosine kinases, PTPs regulate the phosphorylation state of many important signalling molecules, such as the MAP kinase family.

LYN

Lyn (Src family kinase)p56lyn
To be specific, Lyn, a type of kinase in the Src family that was identified in the nuclear matrix, appears to control the cell cycle.
Lyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which is mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells, in neural tissues liver, and adipose tissue.

Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

Srcc-Srcv-src
To be specific, Lyn, a type of kinase in the Src family that was identified in the nuclear matrix, appears to control the cell cycle.
This protein phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues in other tyrosine kinases.

PTK2

focal adhesion kinaseFAKfocal adhesion kinase (FAK)
A protein tyrosine kinase called pp125 is likely at hand in the influence of cellular focal adhesions, as indicated by an immunofluorescent localization of the said kinase.
This gene encodes a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form among cells attaching to extracellular matrix constituents.

Janus kinase

JAKJAK kinasesJanus Kinases
The results of some newer research have also indicated that the aforementioned cytokine receptors function with members of the JAK tyrosine kinase family.
Janus kinase (JAK) is a family of intracellular, nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that transduce cytokine-mediated signals via the JAK-STAT pathway.

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
Phosphorylation of proteins by kinases is an important mechanism in communicating signals within a cell (signal transduction) and regulating cellular activity, such as cell division.
In eukaryotic cells, most intracellular proteins activated by a ligand/receptor interaction possess an enzymatic activity; examples include tyrosine kinase and phosphatases.

Receptor tyrosine kinase

receptor tyrosine kinasestyrosine kinase receptortyrosine kinase receptors
By 2004, 58 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were known, grouped into 20 subfamilies.
Of the 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in the human genome, 58 encode receptor tyrosine kinase proteins.

Genistein

Yet another possible and probable role of protein tyrosine kinase is that in the event of circulatory failure and organ dysfunction caused by endotoxin in rats, where the effects of inhibitors tyrphostin and genistein are involved with protein tyrosine kinase.

Carcinogenesis

tumorigenesisoncogenesisoncogenic
Many RTKs are involved in oncogenesis, either by gene mutation, or chromosome translocation, or simply by over-expression.
A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome, or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine kinase.

Gefitinib

Iressa
In this case, Gefitinib is the inhibitor of tyrosine kinase.
Gefitinib is the first selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor's (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain.

ABL (gene)

AblAbl geneABL1
AATK; ABL; ABL2;
The ABL1 proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response.

Rous sarcoma virus

Rous sarcomaRSVchicken sarcoma virus
A chicken sarcoma virus was found to carry mutated versions of the normal cellular Src gene.

GRB2

Grb-2grb2 adaptor protein
An adapter protein such as Grb2 will bind to phosphate-tyrosine residues under the influence of receptor protein kinases.
Grb2 is best known for its ability to link the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase to the activation of Ras and its downstream kinases, ERK1,2.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
In every case, the result is a hyper-active kinase, that confers an aberrant, ligand-independent, non-regulated growth stimulus to the cancer cells.
A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome, or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia and results in production of the BCR-abl fusion protein, an oncogenic tyrosine kinase.

Imatinib

Gleevecimatinib mesylateSTI571
Therefore, kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, are often effective cancer treatments. Among currently available inhibitors to treat CML are imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib and ponatinib.
As this is now a constitutively active tyrosine kinase, imatinib is used to decrease bcr-abl activity.

ABL2

ARG
AATK; ABL; ABL2;
ABL2 is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase which is closely related to but distinct from ABL1.

BMX (gene)

BMXBMX gene
BMX;
Tyrosine kinases are either receptor molecules, which contain transmembrane and extracellular domains, or nonreceptor proteins, which are located intracellularly.

Dasatinib

BMS-354825Sprycel
Among currently available inhibitors to treat CML are imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib and ponatinib. If imatinib does not work, patients with advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia can use nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, ponatinib, or another inhibitor to the malfunction enzyme that causes the leukemia.
It is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor and works by blocking a number of tyrosine kinases such as Bcr-Abl and the Src kinase family.

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PDGFRplatelet derived growth factor receptorPDGF receptor
Sunitinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts upon vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), stem cell factor receptor, and colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (Burstein et al. 2008)
The extracellular region of the receptor consists of five immunoglobulin-like domains while the intracellular part is a tyrosine kinase domain.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

chronic myeloid leukemiachronic myeloid leukaemiablast crisis
If imatinib does not work, patients with advanced chronic myelogenous leukemia can use nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, ponatinib, or another inhibitor to the malfunction enzyme that causes the leukemia.
Because abl carries a domain that can add phosphate groups to tyrosine residues (a tyrosine kinase), the bcr-abl fusion gene product is also a tyrosine kinase.

AATK

AATK; ABL; ABL2;
The protein contains a tyrosine kinase domain at the N-terminal end and a proline-rich domain at the c-terminal end.

EPH receptor A2

EPHA2
EPHA1; EPHA2; EPHA3; EPHA4; EPHA5; EPHA6; EPHA7; EPHA8; EPHA10;
This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family.

FYN

Fyn tyrosine kinase
FRK; FYN; GSG2; HCK; IGF1R; ILK; INSR;
Fyn is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family.

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1

FGFR1CD331FGF receptor 1
FGFR1; FGFR2; FGFR3; FGFR4;
FGFR1-4 are cell surface membrane receptors that possess tyrosine kinase activity.