UK miners' strike (1984–85)

miners' strikeUK miners' strike (1984–1985)UK miners' strike1984–85 miners' strike1984 miners' strike1984-85 miners' strikeminers' strike of 1984–851984–1985 miners' strikeUK miners' strike (1984-1985)miners strike
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was a major industrial action to shut down the British coal industry in an attempt to prevent colliery closures.wikipedia
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Arthur Scargill

ScargillScargill rules OK
It was led by Arthur Scargill of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) against the National Coal Board (NCB), a government agency.
A decade later, he led the union through the 1984–85 miners' strike, a major event in the history of the British labour movement.

National Union of Mineworkers (Great Britain)

National Union of MineworkersNUMMiners' Federation of Great Britain
It was led by Arthur Scargill of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) against the National Coal Board (NCB), a government agency.
The NUM took part in three national miners' strikes, in 1972, 1974 and 1984–85.

Second Thatcher ministry

Thatcher IIThatcher governmentConservative government
Violent confrontations between flying pickets and police characterised the year-long strike, which ended in a decisive victory for the Conservative government and allowed the closure of most of Britain's collieries.
March 1984 saw the beginning of a miners' strike which would last for 12 months and divide the country as Mrs Thatcher announced extensive pit closures which would ultimately cost thousands of miners their jobs as well, while the remaining pits were set to be privatised in the proposed sell-off of the National Coal Board.

Seumas Milne

Seumas
The journalist Seumas Milne said of the strike, "it has no real parallel – in size, duration and impact – anywhere in the world".
Milne is the author of The Enemy Within: The Secret War Against the Miners, a book about the 1984–85 British miners' strike which focuses on the role of MI5 and Special Branch in the dispute.

Cortonwood

Cortonwood Colliery
The main strike started on 6 March 1984 with a walkout at Cortonwood Colliery, which led to the NUM's Yorkshire area's sanctioning of a strike on the grounds of a ballot result from 1981 in the Yorkshire Area, which was later challenged in court.
The colliery's proposed closure was a tipping point in the 1984-85 miner's strike.

Ian MacGregor

Ian Kinloch MacGregorSir Ian Kinloch MacGregorSir Ian MacGregor
Coal mining, nationalised by Clement Attlee's Labour government in 1947, was managed by the National Coal Board (NCB) under Ian MacGregor in 1984.
Sir Ian Kinloch MacGregor, KBE (21 September 1912 – 13 April 1998) was a Scottish-American metallurgist and industrialist, most famous in the UK for his controversial tenure at British Steel Corporation and his conduct during the 1984–85 miners' strike while managing the National Coal Board.

Battle of Orgreave

OrgreaveThe Battle of OrgreaveA major clash
The only nationally coordinated actions in the 1984–85 strike were the mass pickets at Orgreave.
It was a pivotal event in the 1984–85 UK miners' strike, and one of the most violent clashes in British industrial history.

Grimethorpe

Grimethorpe Interchange
Poverty increased in former coal mining areas, and in 1994 Grimethorpe in South Yorkshire was the poorest settlement in the country.
Since the 1984-85 Miners strike accelerated the downscale of UK coal mining and international cheap open-cast mining provoked closure of its colliery in May 1993.

Margaret Thatcher

ThatcherBaroness ThatcherThatcherite
Opposition to the strike was led by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who wanted to reduce the power of the trade unions.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 was the biggest and most devastating confrontation between the unions and the government under Thatcher.

North East England

North EastNorth East of Englandnorth-east
The strike was almost universally observed in South Wales, Yorkshire, Scotland, North East England and Kent, but there was less support across the Midlands and in North Wales.
Most of the mines in the region were closed during the years of UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (see UK miners' strike (1984–1985)) however several large open cast coal mines are still operational in the region.

South Wales

Southsouthern WalesSouth Welsh
The strike was almost universally observed in South Wales, Yorkshire, Scotland, North East England and Kent, but there was less support across the Midlands and in North Wales. In South Wales, miners showed a high degree of solidarity, as they came from isolated villages where most workers were employed in the pits, had similar lifestyles, and an evangelical religious style based on Methodism that led to an ideology of egalitarianism.
This number is now very low, following the UK miners' strike (1984–85), and the last 'traditional' deep-shaft mine, Tower Colliery, closed in January 2008.

National Coal Board

NCBCoal Boardnationalised
It was led by Arthur Scargill of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) against the National Coal Board (NCB), a government agency. Coal mining, nationalised by Clement Attlee's Labour government in 1947, was managed by the National Coal Board (NCB) under Ian MacGregor in 1984.
In 1984, it was alleged that the NCB had a list of collieries earmarked for closure and its chairman, Ian MacGregor indicated that the board was looking to reduce output by 4 million tons, a contributory factor in the 1984–85 miners' strike.

Picketing

picket linepicketpicket lines
Violent confrontations between flying pickets and police characterised the year-long strike, which ended in a decisive victory for the Conservative government and allowed the closure of most of Britain's collieries.
For example, during the UK miners' strike (1984-1985), strikebreakers were pelted by pickets with stones, paint and brake fluid.

Nottinghamshire

County of NottinghamNottinghamNottinghamshire, England
Nottinghamshire became a target for aggressive and sometimes violent picketing as Scargill's pickets tried to stop local miners from working.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, mechanised deeper collieries opened, and mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984–85 miners' strike.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
Coal mining, nationalised by Clement Attlee's Labour government in 1947, was managed by the National Coal Board (NCB) under Ian MacGregor in 1984.
The miners' strike of 1984–85 over coal mine closures, which divided the NUM as well as the Labour Party, and the Wapping dispute led to clashes with the left of the party, and negative coverage in most of the press.

Northern England

North of EnglandNorthernNorth
Many communities in Northern England, Scotland and Wales would lose their primary source of employment.
The era saw the 1984–85 miners' strike, which brought hardship for many Northern mining towns.

Selby Coalfield

Gascoigne WoodStillingfleet MineNorth Selby
The effect of closures was lessened by transfers to other pits and the opening up of the Selby Coalfield where working conditions and wages were relatively favourable.
The new mine produced no coal in 1984/5 due to the UK miners' strike (1984–1985).

Mansfield

Mansfield, NottinghamshireMansfield, EnglandEnglish town in Nottinghamshire
As many working miners felt the NUM was not doing enough to protect them from intimidation from pickets, a demonstration was organised on May Day in Mansfield, in which the representative Ray Chadburn was shouted down, and fighting ensued between protesters for and against the strike.
A notably violent scene of the UK miners' strike (1984–1985) occurred in Mansfield on May Day 1984.

National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies and Shotfirers

NACODS
Their union, the National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies and Shotfirers (NACODS) with 17,000 members in 1984, was less willing to take industrial action.
There were some confrontations during the 1972 strike, but nothing compared to what came in the 1984-85 strike.

UK miners' strike (1969)

unofficial strike in 196919691969 miners' strike in Britain
After a period of inaction from the NUM leadership over employment cuts, there was an unofficial strike in 1969, after which many more militant candidates were elected to NUM leadership.
The clashes were later highlighted as a foreboding of the aggressive picketing during the 1984-5 strike.

Ridley Plan

The party's response was the Ridley Plan, an internal report that was leaked to The Economist magazine and appeared in its 27 May 1978 issue.
These tactics were successfully employed during the miners' strike of 1984-85, when the National Union of Mineworkers was defeated by the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Opposition to the strike was led by the Conservative government of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who wanted to reduce the power of the trade unions.
She was also deeply unpopular in certain sections of society due to high unemployment, which reached its highest level since the 1930s, peaking at over 3,000,000 people following her economic reforms, and her response to the miners' strike.

Barrow Colliery

Arthur Scargill led a procession accompanied by a Scots piper, back to work at Barrow Colliery in Worsborough but then it was stopped by a picket of Kent miners.
The mine operated for 109 years with a pause in production during the UK miners' strike.

Roger Windsor

She denied the agency had informers in the NUM, specifically denying its chief executive Roger Windsor had been an agent.
Roger Windsor was chief executive of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) between 1983 and 1989, including during the 1984 miners' strike.

Union of Democratic Mineworkers

Working miners in Nottinghamshire and South Derbyshire set up a new union: the Union of Democratic Mineworkers.
After the events of the strike in 1984-5, the Nottinghamshire area of the NUM was involved in a number of disputes with the National Executive Committee that led to a ballot in May on empowering the Nottingham Area Committee to disassociate from the NUM.