The mosque of Makhdoom Jahanian was built in the late 1300s, and is embellished with the blue tile-work typical of southern Punjab.
The mosque of Mahboob Subhani is decorated in the region's vernacular style.
The shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari is dedicated to Uch's celebrated 13th century Sufi saint.
The Baha'al Halim and Nuriyas tombs were built in the 14th and 16th centuries, respectively.
Several of Uch's monuments were damaged in flooding in the early 19th century, leaving their interiors exposed.
Some of the monuments are undergoing restoration work.

Historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley. Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Also known as home for the Naqvi/Bukhari’s after the migration from Bukhara. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries, and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands. Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for its intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.

- Uch

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City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

The city, along with the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large number of Sufi shrines dating from that era.

Muhammad of Ghor

The Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.

Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. AH 599-602 / 1171-1206 CE. Ghazni mint.
Indian coinage (Pagoda) of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, on the model of Gahadavala dynasty coinage. Obverse: Lakshmi seated facing. Reverse: legend in Devanagari: śrima ha/[mi]ra mahama/da sama "Lord Emir Muhammad (ibn) Sam".
Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206 CE). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204 CE). Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".
Muhammad Ghori's tomb within his mausoleum near Jhelum
[[:File:Hindu_Shahis_Spalapatideva_type,_Kabul_mint.jpg|Bull-and-horseman]] billon coin of Muhammad of Ghor, with his name inscribed in Sanskrit above the bull Nandi. Minted in Delhi or Bada'un, on the model of previous Chauhan and Pala coinage. Obverse: Stylized recumbent bull with Nagari legend around: sri mahamad sam "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam". Reverse: Stylized horseman with Nagari legend around: sri hamirah "Lord Emir".

In 1175, Mu'izz captured Multan from its Ismaili Muslim community, and also took Uch the same year.

Alexandria on the Indus

Alexander on the Indus is located at the junction of the Indus and the Acesines.

Alexandria on the Indus (Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἐπὶ Ἰνδῷ, likely modern Uch, Pakistan) was a city founded by Alexander the Great at the junction of the Indus and the Acesines river.


City located in the Punjab province of Pakistan.

The Noor Mahal was the seat of the city's ruling Nawabs.
Darbar Mahal was built by Nawab Bahawal Khan V in 1905 as a palace for his wife.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan V served as the last Nawab of Bahawalpur.
The ruling Abbasi family regarded the nearby Derawar Fort as a traditional bastion of their power.
Bahawalpur's central library dates from the princely state period.
Fawara Chowk roundabout
Fareed Gate
Alluvial plains form much of the immediate region around Bahawalpur.
The Darbar Mahal mosque was built in an exuberant style.

Prior to the establishment of Bahawalpur, the region's major city was the holy city of Uch Sharif - a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries that is renowned for its collection of historic shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries built in the region's vernacular style.

Minhaj-i Siraj Juzjani

13th-century Persian historian born in the region of Ghur.

Ancient Persian attire worn by soldiers and a nobleman. The History of Costume by Braun & Scheider (1861–1880).

In 1227, Juzjani migrated to Ucch then to Delhi.

Bahawalpur (princely state)

Princely state of British India, and later Pakistan, that was a part of Punjab States Agency.

Bahawalpur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi V Bahadur of Bahawalpur (1883–1907).
Bahawalpur State in the Imperial Gazetteer of India
General Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V, the last ruling and perhaps the most popular Nawab of Bahawalpur State
Map of Pakistan with Bahawalpur highlighted
The graveyard of the Nawabs at Derawar Fort
One Rupee gold coin of Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
Noor Mahal in Bhawalpur
Derawar Fort was a major fort for the Nawabs in the Cholistan Desert
Darbar Mahal, a former palace of the Nawabs of Bahawalpur

Upon establishment of Abbasi rule in the region around Uch, the clan's Nawab established canals as a matter of statecraft in order to help incorporate Daudpotra kinsmen.


Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, (died 30 April 1236, (r.

Illtumish Tomb in Qutub Minar Complex
Coinage of Shams al-Dīn Iltutmish (AH 607-633 AD 1210-1235). AR Tanka (25mm, 11.07 g, 6h). Sind type.
Extent of Delhi Sultanate under Iltutmish; The Sultanate clearly expanded under Shams ud-din into Bengal, the outskirts of Tibet and south to the Gangentic plains.
Coin of Ghiyath al-Din 'Iwad, Governor of Bengal (AH 614-616/ AD 1217-1220). Struck in the name of Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan of Dehli.
Obv: Crude figure of Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devanagari legends: Sri / hamirah. Star above horse. Rev: Arabic legends: Shams al-dunya wa'l din Iltutmish al-sultan.
Obv:Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devanagari legends: Sri / hamirah. Rev:Arabic legends: Shams al-dunya wa'l din Abu'l Muzaffar Iltutmish al-Sultan.
Qutb Minar was completed by Iltutmish
Hauz-i-Shamsi pavilion
Gandhak ki Baoli
Sultan Ghari

Sindh, controlled by Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, a former Ghurid slave, who had been muqta (provincial governor) of Uch since 1204

Mongol Empire

The largest contiguous land empire in history.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
superimposed on a modern political map of Eurasia
Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
The Old World on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
Genghis Khan, National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Genghis Khan ascended the throne in the Ikh Khuraldai region in the Onan river, from the Jami' al-tawarikh.
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Coronation of Ögedei Khan in 1229 as the successor of Genghis Khan. By Rashid al-Din, early 14th century.
The sack of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from a 16th-century chronicle
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.
Batu Khan consolidates the Golden Horde
Güyük Khan demanding Pope Innocent IV's submission. The 1246 letter was written in Persian.
A Stone Turtle at the site of the Mongol capital, Karakorum.
Hulagu, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Il-Khanate. From a medieval Persian manuscript.
Mongol invasion of Baghdad
Fall of Baghdad, 1258
The extent of the Mongol Empire after the death of Möngke Khan (reigned 1251–1259).
The Mongols at war
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan's grandson and founder of the Yuan dynasty
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol's bomb and Goryeo's arrows. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right)
Samurai Shiraishi clan
Mongol warrior on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot.
The funeral of Chagatai Khan.
Mongol rider, Yuan dynasty
A European depiction of the four khans, Temür (Yuan), Chapar (House of Ögedei), Toqta (Golden Horde), and Öljaitü (Ilkhanate), in the Fleur des histoires d'orient.
Hungarian King Béla IV in flight from the Mongols under general Kadan of the Golden Horde.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate
Iron helmet, Mongol Empire
The Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, in which Lithuania successfully pushed the Golden Horde from the Principality of Kiev.
Crimean Tatar khan, Mengli Giray.
Reconstruction of a Mongol warrior
Mongol general Subutai of the Golden Horde
The executed – the long and full beard probably means he is not a Mongol – has been thrown off a cliff.
Persian miniature depicting Ghazan's conversion from Buddhism to Islam.
A 1363 astronomical handbook with Middle Mongolian glosses. Known as the Sanjufini Zij.
Mongols look on as Persian astronomers work. Early 14th century illustration in the Compendium of Chronicles.
A 1305 letter (on a scroll measuring 302 by) from the Ilkhan Mongol Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France.
Tuda Mengu of the Golden Horde.
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Map showing the boundary of 13th century Mongol Empire compared to today's Mongols in Mongolia, Russia, the Central Asian States, and China
Tokhtamysh and the armies of the Golden Horde initiate the Siege of Moscow (1382).
Dominican martyrs killed by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Poland in 1260.

Ögedei continued with offensives into the Indian subcontinent, temporarily investing Uchch, Lahore, and Multan of the Delhi Sultanate and stationing a Mongol overseer in Kashmir, though the invasions into India eventually failed and were forced to retreat.

Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari

Sufi saint and missionary belonging to the Sufi order of Hussaini Jalali.

Tomb: Syed Jalaludin Sher Shah Surkh Posh Bukhari
Mosque (left) and entrance to the tomb/shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari (right) in Uch
Bukhara's old town in 2012, Uzbekistan

In 1244 CE (about 640AH), Bukhari moved to Uch, South Punjab (also known as Uch Sharif after the saint settled there) with his son, Baha-ul-Halim, where he founded a religious school.

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

The founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325.

Silver Tanka of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Dated AH 724
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq's tomb in Delhi

In response, Tughluq asked him to come to Dipalpur with the son of the Uchch governor Bahram Aiba, who was also opposed to Khusrau Khan.