Udayin

Sculpture of Udayin

Udayin (c.

- Udayin
Sculpture of Udayin

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Jarasandha's Akhara

Rajgir

Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Jarasandha's Akhara
Gautama Buddha spent a substantial amount of time here.
The historic locality is surrounded by the Rajgir hills and remains of cyclopean walls.
Boar's Cave
Closeup of Buddha at Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Rope way from the 1960s
One of the caves. (Caddy 1895)

It was the ancient capital city of the Magadha kings until the 5th century BC when Udayin (460–440 BC), son of Ajatashatru, moved the capital to Pataliputra (modern Patna).

The approximate extent of the Haryanka dynasty between the 6th and 5th century BCE.

Haryanka dynasty

The third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India, which succeeded the Pradyota dynasty and Barhadratha dynasty.

The third ruling dynasty of Magadha, an empire of ancient India, which succeeded the Pradyota dynasty and Barhadratha dynasty.

The approximate extent of the Haryanka dynasty between the 6th and 5th century BCE.
King Bimbisara of the Magadhan Haryanka dynasty visits the Bamboo Garden (Venuvana) in Rajagriha; artwork from Sanchi.
Ajatashatru of Magadha used catapults against the Licchavis.

Later, it was shifted to Pataliputra, near the present-day Patna in India during the reign of Udayin.

Magadha and other Mahajanapadas in the period of the Second Urbanization, early Historic Period.

Magadha

Region and one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of the Second Urbanization in what is now south Bihar (before expansion) at the eastern Ganges Plain.

Region and one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of the Second Urbanization in what is now south Bihar (before expansion) at the eastern Ganges Plain.

Magadha and other Mahajanapadas in the period of the Second Urbanization, early Historic Period.
Cyclopean Wall of Rajgir which encircled the former capital of Magadha, Rajgir. Amongst the oldest pieces of cyclopeon masonry in the world
Magadha and other Mahajanapadas in the period of the Second Urbanization, early Historic Period.
Magadha in the early Iron Age (1100-600 BC)
Map depicting 16 mahajanapadas kingdoms and other kingdoms in 540 BCE.
King Bimbisara visits the Bamboo Garden (Venuvana) in Rajagriha; artwork from Sanchi.
Nanda empire 450 BCE or 346 BCE
Maurya Empire, c. 250 BCE
Magadha kingdom coin, c. 430–320 BCE, Karshapana
Magadha kingdom coin, c. 350 BCE, Karshapana
The ancient Mahabodhi temple at Bodh Gaya prior to its restoration
The 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, Mahavira, who was born in Magadha to a royal family

Udayin (c. 462–446 BCE)

A silver coin of 1 karshapana of King Mahapadma Nanda or his sons 4th century BC

Mahapadma Nanda

The first Emperor of the Nanda Empire of ancient India.

The first Emperor of the Nanda Empire of ancient India.

A silver coin of 1 karshapana of King Mahapadma Nanda or his sons 4th century BC

According to the Jain texts such as Parishishtaparvan and Avashyaka sutra, which do not mention the name "Mahapadma" either, the Nanda king was the son of a courtesan by a barber. They state that Nanda succeeded Udayin after his death from a rival king. They further state Kalpaka, a non-violent Jain, as his chief-minister, who is believed to have sacrificed his life for peace.

Malwa in 1780

List of rulers of Malwa

List of rulers of Malwa since the Janpada Kingdoms:

List of rulers of Malwa since the Janpada Kingdoms:

Malwa in 1780

Udayin (461-428 BCE)

The view of Patna Junction, featuring the culture of Bihar(created during 6th Chief Ministry of Nitish Kumar.

History of Patna

One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world and the history of Patna spans at least three millennia.

One of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world and the history of Patna spans at least three millennia.

The view of Patna Junction, featuring the culture of Bihar(created during 6th Chief Ministry of Nitish Kumar.
Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, on the bank of river Phalgu in Bodh Gaya, Bihar
Ruins of the ancient city of Pataliputra, predecessor to the city of Patna.
Shepherd boy Chandragupta Maurya dreaming of India he was to create-statue located in front of Parliament of India.
Chanakya also known as Kautilya, the prime minister and mentor of Chandragupta Maurya.
A pictographic depiction of Bindusara, the second ruler of Mauryan Empire.
A pictographic depiction of Chandragupta Vikramaditya during Saurashtra campaign.
The depiction of a Hepthalite horseman (Huna people) who were defeated by Skandagupta from the British Museum.
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, the invader who destroyed famous Nalanda Mahavihara.
A portrait of Akbar, the Mughal emperor who came to patna to contain Afghan rebels.
Main street of Patna, Company style, c. 1814-15 CE.
Street in Patna by Charles D'Oyly, c. 1825 CE.
Patna College, established in established 1863, is the oldest surviving institution of higher education in Bihar.
Bihar Museum established during 6th Chief Ministry of Nitish Kumar.
Karpoori Thakur, The former Chief Minister of Bihar who consolidated politics of Backward castes.
Lalu Prasad Yadav with descendants of martyr Tatya Tope.
Nitish Kumar with Prime minister Narendra Modi.
Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire.
Pataliputra as a capital of Maurya Empire.
Pataliputra as a capital of Shunga Empire.
Pataliputra as a capital of Sher Shah's Empire.
Robert Clive became the first British Governor of Bengal, Patna (Bihar) was a part of Bengal.
First Chief Minister of Bihar, Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha.
Lalu Prasad Yadav, longest reigning Chief Minister of Bihar after Srikrishna Sinha.
Nitish Kumar, current Chief Minister of Bihar.

Udayabhadra eventually succeeded his father, Ajatashatru, under him Pataliputra became the largest city in the world.

Artistic representation of a sculpture from the Mathura archaeological site (Kankali Tila) that depicts the last four Tirthankaras, c. 51 CE.

History of Jainism

Religion founded in ancient India.

Religion founded in ancient India.

Artistic representation of a sculpture from the Mathura archaeological site (Kankali Tila) that depicts the last four Tirthankaras, c. 51 CE.
Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism in the current time cycle.
Brass idol of Parshvanatha from the 8th century, Ethnological Museum of Berlin.
Statue of Rishabhanatha, the 1st Tirthankara of Jainism in current time cycle.
Chandragupta Maurya built one of the largest empires in ancient India. According to Jain history, he then renounced it all, and became a Jain monk in 297 BCE.
Inscription about Jain ascetic Bhadrabahu and emperor-turned-monk Chandragupta Maurya (Shravanabelagola, Karnataka). This inscription has been dated to 1129 CE, about 1,400 years after the event.
Parsvanatha ayagapata, Mathura circa 15 CE

492–460 BCE), Ashoka and Udayin (c.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Parishishtaparvan

12th-century Sanskrit mahakavya by Hemachandra which details the histories of the earliest Jain teachers.

12th-century Sanskrit mahakavya by Hemachandra which details the histories of the earliest Jain teachers.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

According to Hemachandra, the sequence of rulers in the times of the Jains discussed was: Shrenika, Kunika, Udayin, the nine Nandas, Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka, and Samprati.

The ruins of Cyrene

List of state leaders in the 5th century BC

List of state leaders in the 5th century BC .

List of state leaders in the 5th century BC .

The ruins of Cyrene

Udayin, King (c.460–c.440 BC)

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.

Ashoka

Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

Indian emperor of the Maurya Empire, son of Bindusara, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.

A c. 1st century BCE/CE relief from Sanchi, showing Ashoka on his chariot, visiting the Nagas at Ramagrama.
Ashoka's Major Rock Edict at Junagadh contains inscriptions by Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I and Skandagupta.
King Ashoka visits Ramagrama, to take relics of the Buddha from the Nagas, but in vain. Southern gateway, Stupa 1, Sanchi.
The Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka, mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
The Aramaic Inscription of Taxila probably mentions Ashoka.
The Saru Maru commemorative inscription seems to mention the presence of Ashoka in the area of Ujjain as he was still a Prince.
Kanaganahalli inscribed panel portraying Asoka with Brahmi label "King Asoka", 1st–3rd century CE.
Stupa of Sanchi. The central stupa was built during the Mauryas, and enlarged during the Sungas, but the decorative gateway is dated to the later dynasty of the Satavahanas.
Illustration of the original Mahabodhi Temple temple built by Asoka at Bodh Gaya. At the center, the Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", with its supporting columns, being the object of adoration. A Pillar of Ashoka topped by an elephant appears in the right corner. Bharhut relief, 1st century BCE.
The rediscovered Vajrasana, or "Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha", at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya. It was built by Ashoka to commemorate the enlightenment of the Buddha, about two hundred years before him.
Ashoka and Monk Moggaliputta-Tissa at the Third Buddhist Council. Nava Jetavana, Shravasti.
A king - most probably Ashoka - with his two queens and three attendants, in a relief at Sanchi. The king's identification with Ashoka is suggested by a similar relief at Kanaganahalli, which bears his name.
Ashoka with his queen, at Kanaganahalli near Sannati, 1st–3rd century CE. The relief bears the inscription "Rāya Asoko" (𑀭𑀸𑀬 𑀅𑀲𑁄𑀓𑁄, "King Ashoka") in Brahmi script. It depicts the king with his queen, two attendants bearing fly-whisks, and one attendant bearing an umbrella.
Emperor Ashoka and his Queen at the Deer Park. Sanchi relief.
The word Upāsaka (𑀉𑀧𑀸𑀲𑀓, "Buddhist lay follower", in the Brahmi script), used by Ashoka in his Minor Rock Edict No.1 to describe his affiliation to Buddhism (circa 258 BCE).
Territories "conquered by the Dhamma" according to Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
Distribution of the Edicts of Ashoka, and location of the contemporary Greek city of Ai-Khanoum.
The Kandahar Edict of Ashoka, a bilingual inscription (in Greek and Aramaic) by King Ashoka, discovered at Kandahar (National Museum of Afghanistan).
The Minor Rock Edict of Maski mentions the author as "Devanampriya Asoka", definitively linking both names, and confirming Ashoka as the author of the famous Edicts.
A c. 1910 painting by Abanindranath Tagore (1871–1951) depicting Ashoka's queen standing in front of the railings of the Buddhist monument at Sanchi (Raisen district, Madhya Pradesh).
The Ashokan pillar at Lumbini, Nepal, Buddha's birthplace
The Diamond throne at the Mahabodhi Temple, attributed to Ashoka
Front frieze of the Diamond throne
Mauryan ringstone, with standing goddess. Northwest Pakistan. 3rd century BCE. British Museum
Rampurva bull capital, detail of the abacus, with two "flame palmettes" framing a lotus surrounded by small rosette flowers.
Caduceus symbol on a Maurya-era punch-marked coin
A punch-marked coin attributed to Ashoka<ref>{{cite book |last=Mitchiner |first=Michael |date=1978 |title=Oriental Coins & Their Values: The Ancient and Classical World 600 B.C. - A.D. 650 |publisher=Hawkins Publications |page=544 |isbn=978-0-9041731-6-1}}</ref>
A Maurya-era silver coin of 1 karshapana, possibly from Ashoka's period, workshop of Mathura. Obverse: Symbols including a sun and an animal Reverse: Symbol Dimensions: 13.92 x 11.75 mm Weight: 3.4 g.

The Ashokavadana also names his father as Bindusara, but traces his ancestry to Buddha's contemporary king Bimbisara, through Ajatashatru, Udayin, Munda, Kakavarnin, Sahalin, Tulakuchi, Mahamandala, Prasenajit, and Nanda.