Ujjain

UjjayiniUjjainiUjjayaniUjjeniAvantiAvantikāUjainMahakalavanaNew Ujjain JunctionOujein
Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.wikipedia
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States and union territories of India

StateIndian stateUnion Territory
Ujjain is a city in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

Public administration

administrationpublic officepublic management
It is the fifth largest city in Madhya Pradesh by population and is the administrative centre of Ujjain district and Ujjain division.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
It remained an important political, commercial and cultural centre of central India until the early 19th century, when the British administrators decided to develop Indore as an alternative to it.

Shaivism

ShaivaShaiviteSaivite
Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Vaishnavites and followers of Shakta.

Vaishnavism

VaishnavaVaishnaviteVaishnavaite
Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Vaishnavites and followers of Shakta.

Shaktism

ShaktaSaktaSaktism
Ujjain continues to be an important place of pilgrimage for Shaivites, Vaishnavites and followers of Shakta.

Smart city

smart citiesdigital cityintelligent cities
Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Narendra Modi

ModiPM Narendra ModiNarendra Damodardas Modi
Ujjain has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Kaytha

Kayatha
Excavations at Kayatha (around 26 km from Ujjain) have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE.

Chalcolithic

Copper AgeEneolithicChalcolithic period
Excavations at Kayatha (around 26 km from Ujjain) have revealed chalcolithic agricultural settlements dating to around 2000 BCE.

Nagda

Nagda JunctionBirlagram Nagda
Chalcolithic sites have also been discovered at other areas around Ujjain, including Nagda, but excavations at Ujjain itself have not revealed any chalcolithic settlements.

Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia

H. D. SankaliaHasmukh SankaliyaHD Sankalia
Archaeologist H. D. Sankalia theorized that the chalcolithic settlements at Ujjain were probably destroyed by the Iron Age settlers.

Iron Age

Early Iron AgeIronLate Iron Age
Archaeologist H. D. Sankalia theorized that the chalcolithic settlements at Ujjain were probably destroyed by the Iron Age settlers.

Hermann Kulke

Kulke
According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, Avanti, whose capital was Ujjain, "was one of the earliest outposts in central India" and showed signs of early incipient urbanisation around 700 BCE.

Dietmar Rothermund

According to Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, Avanti, whose capital was Ujjain, "was one of the earliest outposts in central India" and showed signs of early incipient urbanisation around 700 BCE.

Rampart (fortification)

rampartrampartsbank
It was surrounded by a 12 m high mud rampart.

Moat

moatsfossemoated
The archaeological investigations have also indicated the presence of a 45 m wide and 6.6 m deep moat around the city.

Raymond Allchin

F. Raymond AllchinF. R. AllchinFrank Raymond Allchin
According to F. R. Allchin and George Erdosy, these city defences were constructed between 6th and 4th centuries BCE.

Burnishing (metal)

burnishingburnishedburnish
This period is characterised by structures made of stone and burnt-brick, tools and weapons made of iron, and black and red burnished ware.

Puranas

PuranaPuranicSthala Purana
According to the Puranic texts, a branch of the legendary Haihaya dynasty ruled over Ujjain.

Chandragupta Maurya

ChandraguptaChandra Gupta MauryaSandracottus
In the 4th century BCE, the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta annexed Avanti to his empire.

Viceroy

viceregalvice-regalnamestnik
During the reign of his father Bindusara, Ashoka served as the viceroy of Ujjain, which highlights the importance of the town.

Vidisha

BhilsaBesnagarVidisa
As the viceroy of Ujjain, Ashoka married Devi, the daughter of a merchant from Vedisagiri (Vidisha).

Terracotta

terra cottaterra-cottaterracota
From the Mauryan period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells and ivory seals with Brahmi text have been excavated at Ujjain.

Brahmi script

BrahmiBrāhmīBrāhmī script
From the Mauryan period, Northern Black Polished Ware, copper coins, terracotta ring wells and ivory seals with Brahmi text have been excavated at Ujjain.