A report on Ukraine

A gold Scythian neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Pokrov (4th century BC).
The furthest extent of Kievan Rus', 1054–1132.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its maximum extent in 1619. Poland and the Polish Crown exercised power over much of Ukraine since 1569 and rejected the Ukrainian call for autonomy.
Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky established an independent Cossack state after the 1648 uprising against Poland.
Russia's victory over Charles XII of Sweden and his ally Ivan Mazepa at the Battle of Poltava (1709) destroyed Cossack autonomy.
Polish troops enter Kyiv in May 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War. Following the Peace of Riga signed on 18 March 1921, Poland took control of modern-day western Ukraine while Soviets took control of eastern and central Ukraine.
A starved man on the streets of Kharkiv, 1933. Collectivization of crops and their confiscation by Soviet authorities led to a major famine in Soviet Ukraine known as the Holodomor.
The territorial evolution of the Ukrainian SSR, 1922–1954
Marshal Timoshenko (born in the Budjak region) commanded numerous fronts throughout the war, including the Southwestern Front east of Kyiv in 1941.
Kyiv suffered significant damage during World War II, and was occupied by the Germans from 19 September 1941 until 6 November 1943.
Two future leaders of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev (left, pre-war CPSU chief in Ukraine) and Leonid Brezhnev (an engineer from Kamianske)
Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk and President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin signed the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the Soviet Union, on 8 December 1991.
Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution
Pro-EU demonstration in Kyiv, 27 November 2013, during the Euromaidan protests
Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbas area represents areas held by the DPR/LPR separatists in September 2014 (cities in red).
OSCE SMM monitoring the movement of heavy weaponry in eastern Ukraine, 4 March 2015
Simplified depiction of the biomes lying north of the Black Sea. The bright green belt girdling the Black Sea's southern coast, extending westwards, denotes a region of subtropics.
Topographic map of Ukraine (with borders and towns)
Köppen climate classification.
Pine forest near Klavdievo, Bucha Raion, Kyiv Oblast
Chart of the political system of Ukraine
Klovsky Palace, home to the Supreme Court of Ukraine
The Cabinet of Ministers building
President of Georgia Salome Zurabishvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and European Council President Charles Michel during the 2021 International Conference in Batumi. In 2014, the EU signed association agreements with all three countries.
In January 2016, Ukraine joined the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (green) with the EU (blue), established by the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, opening its path towards European integration.
Henadii Lachkov, commander of the Ukrainian contingent in Multi-National Force – Iraq, kisses his country's flag
The Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sahaydachniy (U130)
Ukraine (2021) — major cities and adjacent countries
Kyiv, the financial centre of Ukraine.
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle, one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine
HRCS2 multiple unit. Rail transport is heavily utilised in Ukraine.
Electricity production by source, Ukraine
Linguistic map of Ukraine showing most common native language by city, town or village council according to 2001 census
The Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is one of the main Christian cathedrals in Ukraine
The municipal children's hospital in Kremenchuk, Poltava Oblast
The results of the 2014 parliamentary election with People's Front in yellow, Opposition Bloc in blue and Petro Poroshenko Bloc in red
A collection of traditional Ukrainian Easter eggs—pysanky. The design motifs on pysanky date back to early Slavic cultures.
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral in Kyiv, foremost example of Cossack Baroque and one of Ukraine's most recognizable landmarks
Rushnyk, Ukrainian embroidery
Cossack Mamay playing a kobza
Mykola Lysenko is widely considered to be the father of Ukrainian classical music
Ukrainian footballer Andriy Shevchenko celebrates a goal against Sweden at Euro 2012
Vitali Klitschko and his brother, Wladimir
Varenyky topped with fried onion

Country in Eastern Europe.

- Ukraine

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Kyiv

44 links

Detail of Sebastian Münster's [[:File:Polonia Et Ungaria XX Nova Tabula.jpg|Map of Poland and Hungary]], 1552, showing Kyiv labelled "Kyouia epatus" (Kyovia episcopatus)
A fragment of the New Universal Atlas by John Cary, London, 1808. The city was situated on the borderline between the former Polish (left) and Russian (right) zones of influence, with the name being presented as Kiev.
Legendary Kyi, Shchek, Khoryv and Lybid in the Radziwiłł Chronicle
Hungarians at Kyiv in 830 during the times of the Rus' Khaganate
The Baptism of Kyivans, a painting by Klavdiy Lebedev
The 1686 city map of Kyiv ("Kiovia")
Cossack Bohdan Khmelnytsky entering Kyiv after the Khmelnytsky Uprising against Polish domination. Painting by Mykola Ivasiuk.
Kyiv in the late 19th century
Kyiv's council chambers in 1930
Ruins of Kyiv during World War II
The Ukrainian national flag was raised outside Kyiv's City Hall for the first time on 24 July 1990.
A Copernicus Programme Sentinel-2 image of Kyiv and the Dnieper
A view of the left bank neighbourhoods of Kyiv
The Berezniaky neighbourhood in Dnipro Raion
The Kyiv National Opera House
The Kyiv Academic Puppet Theatre
A public concert held on Maidan Nezalezhnosti during Kyiv's 2005 Eurovision Song Contest
Lilacs in the National Botanical Garden, with the Vydubychi Monastery, Darnitskiy Rail Bridge and left-bank Kyiv visible in the background
The National Historical Museum of Ukraine
The annual 5.5 km "Run under the Chestnuts" is a popular public sporting event in Kyiv, with hundreds taking part every year.
The TsUM department store
The An-124, the largest aircraft ever mass-produced, designed by Antonov in Kyiv
The Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is based in Kyiv.
National Taras Shevchenko University
Trolleybus ElektroLAZ-301 at Sofia Square, passing by the statue of Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Zoloti Vorota Metro Station Central Hall.
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Golda Meir, Prime Minister of Israel.
Igor Sikorsky on Time magazine cover, 1953.
Pianist Vladimir Horowitz was born in Kyiv.
Milla Jovovich
Golden Gate
Holy Dormition Cathedral
St. Sophia Cathedral
St. Volodymyr's Cathedral
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery
Intercession Convent
St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral
Saint Andrew's Church
Mariinskyi Palace
National Bank of Ukraine
"House with Chimaeras"
Brodsky Choral Synagogue - Moorish Revival architecture

Kyiv (, ; Київ, ) or Kiev is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine.

Poland

32 links

Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619

The country is bordered by Lithuania and Russia to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west.

Belarus

27 links

Landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

Landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

Stamp with the Cross of St. Euphrosyne by Lazar Bohsha from 1992
Rus' principalities before the Mongol and Lithuanian invasions
A map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century prior to its union with the Kingdom of Poland. Belarus was fully within its borders.
Napoleon's Grande Armée retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina river (near Barysaw, Belarus)
The first government of the People's Republic,
Sitting left to right:
Aliaksandar Burbis, Jan Sierada, Jazep Varonka, Vasil Zacharka
Standing, left to right:
Arkadz Smolich, Pyotra Krecheuski, Kastus Jezavitau, Anton Ausianik, Liavon Zayats
Meeting in the Kurapaty woods, 1989, where between 1937 and 1941 from 30,000 to 250,000 people, including Belarusian intelligentsia members, were murdered by the NKVD during the Great Purge.
German soldiers in Minsk, August 1941
Khatyn Memorial; during World War II the Germans murdered civilians in 5,295 different localities in occupied Soviet Belarus.
Leaders of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the Soviet Union, 8 December 1991
Alexander Lukashenko has ruled Belarus since 1994.
Strusta Lake in the Vitebsk Region
Government House, Minsk
Victory Square in Minsk
The former flag of Belarus, used in 1918, then in 1943–44 and then between 1991 and 1995, is widely used as a symbol of opposition to the government of Alexander Lukashenko.
Protests at October Square in Minsk in 2006 after the 2006 Belarusian presidential election.
President Alexander Lukashenko, shaking hands with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 2015
Leaders of Belarus, Russia, Germany, France, and Ukraine at the summit in Minsk, 11–12 February 2015
Soldiers patrol in the Białowieża Forest on the Belarusian border with Poland.
Graffiti in Gdańsk depicting Belarusian human rights activist Ales Bialiatski.
Administrative divisions of Belarus
Change in per capita GDP of Belarus, 1973–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A graphical depiction of Belarus's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Belarusian annual GDP and CPI rates 2001–2013
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk is one of the oldest churches in Belarus. Its current style is an ideal example of baroque architecture in the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Opera and Ballet Theater in Minsk
Poet and librettist Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich
Draniki, the national dish
Victoria Azarenka, professional tennis player and a former world No. 1 in singles

It is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

Soviet Union

32 links

Transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.

Transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991.

The Soviet Union after World War II
Lenin, Trotsky and Kamenev celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution
The Soviet Union after World War II
The Russian famine of 1921–22 killed an estimated 5 million people.
Construction of the bridge through the Kolyma (part of the Road of Bones from Magadan to Jakutsk) by the workers of Dalstroy.
Five Marshals of the Soviet Union in 1935. Only two of them – Budyonny and Voroshilov – survived Great Purge. Blyukher, Yegorov and Tukhachevsky were executed.
The Battle of Stalingrad, considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
From left to right, the Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill confer in Tehran, 1943.
Map showing greatest territorial extent of the Soviet Union and the states that it dominated politically, economically and militarily in 1960, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 but before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961 (total area: c. 35,000,000 km2)
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev (left) with US President John F. Kennedy in Vienna, 3 June 1961.
Nikolai Podgorny visiting Tampere, Finland on 16 October 1969
Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and US President Jimmy Carter sign the SALT II arms limitation treaty in Vienna on 18 June 1979
Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with US President Ronald Reagan
The Pan-European Picnic took place in August 1989 on the Hungarian-Austrian border.
T-80 tank on Red Square during the August Coup
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War
Internally displaced Azerbaijanis from Nagorno-Karabakh, 1993
Country emblems of the Soviet Republics before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union (note that the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (fifth in the second row) no longer exists as a political entity of any kind and the emblem is unofficial)
Sukarno and Voroshilov in a state meeting on 1958.
1960s Cuba-Soviet friendship poster with Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet stamp 1974 for friendship between USSR and India as both nations shared strong ties, although India was a prominent member of Non-Aligned Movement
Gerald Ford, Andrei Gromyko, Leonid Brezhnev and Henry Kissinger speaking informally at the Vladivostok Summit in 1974
Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush signing bilateral documents during Gorbachev's official visit to the United States in 1990
1987 Soviet stamp
Military parade on the Red Square in Moscow, 7 November 1964
The Grand Kremlin Palace, the seat of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, 1982
Nationalist anti-government riots in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, 1990
A medium-range SS-20 non-ICBM ballistic missile, the deployment of which in the late 1970s launched a new arms race in Europe in which NATO deployed Pershing II missiles in West Germany, among other things
From left to right: Yuri Gagarin, Pavel Popovich, Valentina Tereshkova and Nikita Khrushchev at the Lenin's Mausoleum in 1963
Soyuz rocket at the Baikonur Cosmodrome
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
Picking cotton in Armenia in the 1930s
Workers of the Salihorsk potash plant, Belarus, 1968
Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod (VAZ) in 1969
Soviet stamp depicting the 30th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency, published in 1987, a year following the Chernobyl nuclear disaster
Soviet stamp showing the orbit of Sputnik 1
Aeroflot's flag during the Soviet era
Population of the Soviet Union (red) and the post-Soviet states (blue) from 1961 to 2009 as well as projection (dotted blue) from 2010 to 2100
Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, visiting the Lviv confectionery, Ukrainian SSR, 1967
Young Pioneers at a Young Pioneer camp in Kazakh SSR
People in Samarkand, Uzbek SSR, 1981
Svaneti man in Mestia, Georgian SSR, 1929
An early Soviet-era poster discouraging unsafe abortion practices
Cover of Bezbozhnik in 1929, magazine of the Society of the Godless. The first five-year plan of the Soviet Union is shown crushing the gods of the Abrahamic religions.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow during its demolition in 1931
A paranja burning ceremony in the Uzbek SSR as part of Soviet Hujum policies
World War II military deaths in Europe by theater and by year. Nazi Germany suffered 80% of its military deaths in the Eastern Front.
2001 stamp of Moldova shows Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space
People in Donetsk celebrate the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany, 9 May 2018
Soviet singer-songwriter, poet and actor Vladimir Vysotsky in 1979
Valeri Kharlamov represented the Soviet Union at 11 Ice Hockey World Championships, winning eight gold medals, two silvers and one bronze
One of the many impacts of the approach to the environment in the USSR is the Aral Sea (see status in 1989 and 2014)
Landscape near Karabash, Chelyabinsk Oblast, an area that was previously covered with forests until acid rainfall from a nearby copper smelter killed all vegetation
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1941
Ethnographic map of the Soviet Union, 1970

In March 1921, during a related conflict with Poland, the Peace of Riga was signed, splitting disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between the Republic of Poland and Soviet Russia.

Moldova

26 links

Landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

Landlocked country in Eastern Europe.

Kievan-rus-1015-1113-(en)
The Principality of Moldavia and the modern boundaries of Moldova, Ukraine, and Romania
Territorial changes of Moldavia following the Treaty of Bucharest 1812.
A map of Greater Romania between 1920 and 1940.
Monument to the villagers who died in World War II, the village Cojușna, Strășeni District.
Bessarabia Germans evacuating after the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia in 1940.
Bălți in Soviet Moldavia in 1985
Deputy Gheorghe Ghimpu replaces the Soviet flag on the Parliament with the Romanian flag on 27 April 1990.
Protests outside the Parliament building in 2009
The Moldovan Parliament
Presidential Palace, Chișinău
Ministry of Internal Affairs of Moldova, Chișinău
Accession to the EU is a central issue in Moldovan politics
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
A soldier of the Moldovan Army at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany
Scenery in Moldova, with Dniester River
Beach on the shore of Dniester River near Vadul lui Vodă
Cave churches at Old Orhei, part of the only national park in the country
Toltrele Prutului near Fetești, Edineț District
Noted for its vivid portrayal of the lower Dniester river, Henryk Sienkiewicz's novel With Fire and Sword opens with a description of saigas as a way to highlight the story's exotic setting. Saigas are a critically endangered species that is now extinct in Moldova.
A proportional representation of Moldova exports, 2019
Moldova GDP by sector
Real GPD per capita development of Moldova, 1973 to 2018
MallDova shopping centre in Chișinău
Mileștii Mici is home to the world's biggest wine cellars.
Chișinău International Airport.
Ethnic map of the Republic of Moldova (2014)
The National Library of Moldova
Moldovans wearing national costumes in Chișinău
Popular Moldovan dishes accompanied by sauerkraut and mămăligă.
Zdob și Zdub performing at the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest.
Moldova national football team in 2015
Moldavian Orthodox church in Condrița.

It is bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.

Protesters fighting government forces on Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev on 18 February 2014.

Revolution of Dignity

25 links

Protesters fighting government forces on Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev on 18 February 2014.
Pro-European Union Euromaidan protesters in Kyiv, December 2013.
Overview of the occupation of central Kyiv by protestors in early February 2014
Crowds of protesters at a mass rally on Independence Square in Kyiv.
Euromaidan-occupied regional government offices on 3 March 2014.
Protesters building a barricade
Trucks that had been carrying troops were burned in Kyiv's city center on 18 February.
Protesters throwing bricks and Molotov cocktails at police officers behind a burning barricade
A barricade burning outside the headquarters of the internal defence forces in Lviv, caused by mass protests.
A barricade line separating interior troops and protesters.
A masked protester during clashes in Kyiv.
Clashes between protesters and internal troops.
A riot police officer is thrown to the ground during clashes in Kyiv.
Kyiv's Trade Unions building, used as Euromaidan headquarters, on fire after a police raid.
Internal troops form a phalanx against protesters. Berkut policemen are standing behind.
Euromaidan crowds on 19 February.
Burning of the Euromaidan headquarters in the Trade Unions Building.
Protesters burning tires near Kyiv Conservatory to obscure snipers' visibility.
Police snipers.
A masked protester with an air rifle.
Euromaidan crowds on 21 February.
Right Sector activists stand in front of a Belarusian opposition movement flag.
Pro-Russian protesters in Donetsk, 1 March 2014.
Pro-Russian activists march on the streets of Odessa, 30 March 2014.
A memorial in Kyiv.
17 December 2013 Ukrainian–Russian action plan
A line of riot police in Kyiv on 12 February.

The Revolution of Dignity (Революція гідності), also known as the Maidan Revolution, took place in Ukraine in February 2014 at the end of the Euromaidan protests, when deadly clashes between protesters and the security forces in the Ukrainian capital Kyiv culminated in the ousting of elected President Viktor Yanukovych, the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian War, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian government.

Schematic depiction according to genetic studies by Alena Kushniarevich

Ukrainian language

24 links

East Slavic language of the Indo-European language family.

East Slavic language of the Indo-European language family.

Schematic depiction according to genetic studies by Alena Kushniarevich
Percentage of people with Ukrainian as their native language according to 2001 census (by region).
Domini Georgi Regis Russiae; Lord George (Yuri), the King of Rus
King's seal of Yuri I of Halych (reign: 1301–1308) "S[igillum] Domini Georgi Regis Rusie" (left), "S[igillum] Domini Georgi Ducis Ladimerie" (right).
"Moneta Rvssie" coined in 1382 based on groschen
Miniature of St Luke from the Peresopnytsia Gospels (1561).
Ukrainian speakers in the Russian Empire (1897)
The Ukrainian text in this Soviet poster reads: "The social base of the USSR is an unbreakable union of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia".
The 1921 Soviet recruitment poster. It uses traditional Ukrainian imagery with Ukrainian-language text: "Son! Enroll in the school of Red commanders, and the defense of Soviet Ukraine will be ensured."
Anti-russification protest. The banner reads "Ukrainian school for Ukrainian kids!".
While Russian was a de facto official language of the Soviet Union in all but formal name, all national languages were proclaimed equal. The name and denomination of Soviet banknotes were listed in the languages of all fifteen Soviet republics. On this 1961 one-ruble note, the Ukrainian for "one ruble", один карбованець (odyn karbovanets`), directly follows the Russian один рубль (odin rubl`).
Fluency in Ukrainian (purple column) and Russian (blue column) in 1989 and 2001
Modern signs in the Kyiv Metro are in Ukrainian. The evolution in their language followed the changes in the language policies in post-war Ukraine. Originally, all signs and voice announcements in the metro were in Ukrainian, but their language was changed to Russian in the early 1980s, at the height of Shcherbytsky's gradual Russification. In the perestroika liberalization of the late 1980s, the signs were changed to bilingual. This was accompanied by bilingual voice announcements in the trains. In the early 1990s, both signs and voice announcements were changed again from bilingual to Ukrainian-only during the de-russification campaign that followed Ukraine's independence. Since 2012 the signs have been in both Ukrainian and English.
Ukrainian language traffic sign for the Ivan Franko Museum in Kryvorivnia.
Sign in both Ukrainian and Romanian languages in the village of Valea Vișeului (Vyshivska Dolyna), Bistra commune, in Romania
Ukrainian keyboard layout
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Map of Ukrainian dialects and subdialects (2005).
Northern groupSouth-eastern groupSouth-western group

It is the native language of about 40 million people and the official state language of Ukraine in Eastern Europe.

Map of the Crimean Peninsula

Crimea

27 links

Peninsula in Eastern Europe.

Peninsula in Eastern Europe.

Map of the Crimean Peninsula
The Flag of Crimea (used by both Ukraine as the flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by Russia as the flag of the Republic of Crimea)
Ruins of the ancient Greek colony of Chersonesus
Genoese fortress in Sudak, 13th century, Republic of Genoa, originally a fortified Byzantine town, 7th century
The Chersonesus Cathedral, built on the site where Vladimir the Great is believed to have been baptized in 989 CE.
Swallow's Nest, built in 1912 for businessman Baron Pavel von Steingel
The eleven-month siege of a Russian naval base at Sevastopol during the Crimean War
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in Crimea: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin.
Simferopol's city centre
Tourists in Crimea with Russian flag flying, June 2015
May Day parade in Simferopol, 1 May 2019.
Coastline between Sudak and Novy Svet
Eclizee-Burun Mountain
Following Russia's annexation of Crimea, Ukraine blocked the North Crimean Canal, which provided 85% of Crimea's drinking water.
The Crimean Mountains in the background and Yalta as seen from the Tsar's Path.
Crimea's south coast has a subtropical climate
Map of the historical trade route (shown in purple) connecting Uppsala with Constantinople via Cherson. The major centers of Kievan Rus' – Kyiv itself, Novgorod and Ladoga – arose along this route.
Tourism is an important sector of Crimea's economy
Crimean Bridge
Trolleybus near Alushta
The cableway in Yalta
Boardwalk in Yalta.
Genoese fortress of Caffa.
Mosque and yard in the Khan Palace in Bakhchisaray
Concert to mark the fifth anniversary of annexation in Sevastopol, Crimea, March 2019
The Foros Church near Yalta
Alexander Pushkin in Bakhchisaray Palace. Painting by Grigory Chernetsov
Painting of the Russian squadron in Sevastopol by Ivan Aivazovsky (1846)
The grave of Russian poet and artist Maximilian Voloshin
People at the Kazantip music festival in 2007
Bakhchisaray Palace
Dulber Palace in Koreiz
Vorontsov Palace
Livadia Palace
Catholic church in Yalta
St. Vladimir's Cathedral, dedicated to the Heroes of Sevastopol (Crimean War).

The peninsula is almost entirely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov; it is located south of Kherson Oblast (which is partially controlled by Russia) in Ukraine, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of Krasnodar Krai in Russia, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge since 2018.

Clockwise from top left: A large EU flag is waved across Maidan on 27 November 2013, opposition activist and popular singer Ruslana addresses the crowds on Maidan on 29 November 2013, Pro EU rally on Maidan, Euromaidan on European Square on 1 December, plinth of the toppled Lenin statue, crowds direct hose at militsiya, tree decorated with flags and posters

Euromaidan

24 links

Clockwise from top left: A large EU flag is waved across Maidan on 27 November 2013, opposition activist and popular singer Ruslana addresses the crowds on Maidan on 29 November 2013, Pro EU rally on Maidan, Euromaidan on European Square on 1 December, plinth of the toppled Lenin statue, crowds direct hose at militsiya, tree decorated with flags and posters
Pro-EU demonstration in Kyiv, 27 November 2013
Euromaidan protest in Kyiv, 18 February 2014
Opposition leaders Vitali Klitschko, Arseniy Yatsenyuk and Oleh Tyahnybok, addressing demonstrators, 27 November 2013
The largest pro-European Union protests outside Kyiv took place at the Taras Shevchenko monument in Lviv
Pro-European Union protests in Luhansk
Police clash with protesters
Euromaidan in Munich
Self-defense of the Maidan
US Secretary of State John Kerry looks at the photos of those killed at Maidan, at the Verkhovna Rada in Kyiv.
Ukrainian Red Cross Society volunteers administering first aid to a wounded protester, 19 January 2014.
Opposition leaders, 8 December 2013
US Senator John McCain addresses crowds in Kyiv, 15 December.
Petro Poroshenko addresses Euromaidan on 8 December 2013
Kyiv, 2 February 2014
Protester performs on the roof of burned "Berkut" bus. The barricade across Hrushevskoho str. Kyiv, 10 February 2014.
Performance "Artist-fighter". Author image- Iana Zholud
The Ukrainian ribbon. Ribbons are common symbols of non-violent protest
The rally on European Square in Kyiv, 24 November 2013
Headquarters of the Euromaidan. At the front entrance there is a portrait of Stepan Bandera, a twentieth century Ukrainian nationalist.

Euromaidan (Євромайда́н, ), or the Maidan Uprising, was a wave of demonstrations and civil unrest in Ukraine, which began on 21 November 2013 with large protests in Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in Kyiv.

The military situation, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine




 For a more detailed map, see the Russo-Ukrainian War detailed map

Russo-Ukrainian War

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The military situation, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine




 For a more detailed map, see the Russo-Ukrainian War detailed map
The blockade of military units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the capture of Crimea by Russia in February–March 2014
Russian troops blocking the Ukrainian military base in Perevalne
The Russian military buildup along Ukraine's eastern border in February–March 2014
The Donbas status referendums in May 2014 were not officially recognised by the Ukrainian government or any UN member state.
June–August 2014 progression map
Residents of Kyiv with Sich Battalion volunteers on 26 August 2014
A map of the line of control and buffer zone established by the Minsk Protocol on 5 September 2014
Pro-Russian rebels in Donetsk in May 2015. Ukraine declared the Russia-backed separatist republics from eastern Ukraine to be terrorist organizations.
Casualties of the War in Donbas
Russian-backed separatists in May 2016
The Kerch Strait incident over the passage between the Black and Azov seas
From left, Russian President Vladimir Putin, French President Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy in Paris, France, December 2019
US paratroopers of 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment depart Italy's Aviano Air Base for Latvia, 23 February 2022. Thousands of US troops were deployed to Eastern Europe amid Russia's military build-up.
Ukrainian deputy prime minister Olha Stefanishyna with NATO secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg at a conference on 10 January 2022 regarding a potential Russian invasion
A U.S. intelligence assessment map and imagery on Russian military movement nearby the Ukrainian border, as on 3 December 2021. It assessed that Russia had deployed about 70,000 military personnel mostly about 100 - 200 km from the Ukrainian border, with an assessment this could be increased to 175,000 personnel. Published by The Washington Post.
An animated map of Russia's invasion of Ukraine
Major Russian natural gas pipelines to Europe
Pro-Kremlin TV and radio host Vladimir Solovyov voiced support for his country's invasion of Ukraine.
Following Russia's annexation of Crimea, Ukraine blocked the North Crimean Canal, which provided 85% of Crimea's drinking and irrigation water.
US officials Assistant Secretary Victoria Nuland and Ambassador to Ukraine Geoffrey R. Pyatt greet Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko in Warsaw on 4 June 2014
A U.S. Army convoy in Vilseck, Germany during Operation Atlantic Resolve, NATO's efforts to reassert its military presence in central and eastern Europe that began in April 2014.
U.S. Paratroopers and Ukrainian National Guard during the Fearless Guardian exercise near Yavoriv, Ukraine, 6 June 2015
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meets with Ukrainian members of parliament, 4 March 2014
Protests in Moscow, 21 September 2014
Pro-Russian supporters in Donetsk, 20 December 2014
Ukrainian refugees in Kraków protest against the war, 6 March 2022

The Russo-Ukrainian War is an ongoing war between Russia (together with pro-Russian separatist forces) and Ukraine.