Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Location of the Ukrainian SSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1954 and 1991
Soviet soldiers preparing rafts to cross the Dnieper during the Battle of the Dnieper (1943). The sign reads: "Let's get Kiev!"
Location of the Ukrainian SSR (red) within the Soviet Union (red and light yellow) between 1954 and 1991
Front page of the Zakarpattia Ukraine newspaper (1944) with the manifest of unification with Soviet Ukraine (not the Ukrainian SSR)
The Curzon Line expanded the territory of the Ukrainian SSR to include western Ukraine, previously controlled by Poland.
Soviet Postal stamp, 1954, titled as the 300th anniversary of "Unification of Ukraine with Russia" (300-летие Воссоединения Украины с Россией)
Three Soviet general secretaries were either born or raised in Ukraine: Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev (depicted here together); and Konstantin Chernenko.
Stamp in honor of the 300th anniversary of Unification of Ukraine with Russia, 1954
The 1991 Ukrainian presidential election. Former dissident Vyacheslav Chornovil gained 23.3 percent of the vote, compared to 61.6 percent for then Acting President Leonid Kravchuk.
The Declaration of Independence, as printed on the ballot for the referendum on 1 December 1991
Central Kharkov in 1981
The 25 oblasts of Ukraine through 1946 to 1954. Crimea would be transferred in 1954 and the Drohobych and Izmail oblasts would be absorbed by, respectively, the Lviv and Odessa oblasts.
Pavilion of Ukraine at the All-Soviet Exhibition Centre in Moscow
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster.
Microdistricts, such as this one in Mykolaiv, became common sights throughout the Ukrainian SSR's cities.
Bolshevik commissars in Ukraine (1919).
Territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1920).
Boundaries of the Ukrainian SSR (1922).
Draft constitution of the Soviet Union (1937)

One of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 until 1991.

- Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics were national-based former countries and ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

Map of the Union Republics from 1956 to 1991, as numbered by the Soviet Constitution
Country emblems of the Union republics, before and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Note that the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (fifth in the second row) no longer exists as a political entity of any kind, and the emblem is unofficial.
A hall in Bishkek's Soviet-era Lenin Museum decorated with the flags of Soviet Republics
Poster of the unity of the Soviet republics in the late 1930s. All republics, except Russia, are shown with their respective traditional clothes.
Poster of the unity of the Soviet republics in the late 1940s. Note that the map also points out the Karelo-Finnish SSR capital, Petrozavodsk.

This allowed for two Soviet Republics, Ukraine and Byelorussia, (as well as the USSR as a whole) to join the United Nations General Assembly as founding members in 1945.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Republic of the Soviet Union (USSR).

Location of Byelorussia (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1945 and 1991
A 2019 stamp dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the BSSR.
Location of Byelorussia (red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) between 1945 and 1991
The initial and provisional borders of the SSRB (dark green)
The Litbel was a Soviet attempt to justify its irredentist ambition by drawing on a historic parallel.
After their 1918–1919 winter conquest of Byelorussia, Ukraine and Lithuania, Soviet forces faced Poland as a competing power in the region.
After the decisive Polish victory in Warsaw, the Red Army was forced to retreat from Polish territories, but attempts to hold Western Belarus were lost after the Polish victory on the Nieman River.
A Belarusian caricature showing the division of their country by Poles and Bolsheviks.
BSSR between the two World Wars
Minsk Railway Station (1926), with the city's name given in Belarusian, Russian, Polish and Yiddish (or interwar Belarus's 4 official languages)
BSSR from September 1939 to June 1941, with territories added after the invasion of Poland marked in orange.
Members of the Soviet resistance in Belarus hanged by the German army on 26 October 1941
Russia-born Andrei Gromyko (right) served as Soviet foreign minister (1957–1985) and as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1985–1988)
The Supreme Soviet of Byelorussia, meets for its legislative sessions in Minsk.
Draniki, the national dish

Within the Soviet Union, it bordered the Lithuanian SSR and the Latvian SSR to the north, the Russian SFSR to the east, and the Ukrainian SSR to the south.

Ukrainian War of Independence

A pro-Tsentralna Rada demonstration in Sophia Square, Kiev, 1917.
Eastern Front of World War I in 1917
Territories claimed by the UNR before annexation of the Ukrainian lands in Austria-Hungary
(February 1918 article from The New York Times)
German troops in Kiev, 1918
Europe in 1919 after the treaties of Brest Litovsk
Ukraine according to an old postcard from 1919
French troops in Odessa, 1919
Edward Śmigły-Rydz saluting the Polish Army in the parade celebrating recent victory in the 1920 offensive liberating Kiev, on 8 May 1920
The coat of arms of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1918); restored under the Directorate (November 1918–1921).
The first flag of the Ukrainian People's Republic, used late 1917 to March 1918.
A propaganda leaflet in support of the Ukrainian People's Republic; designed by B. Shippikh in Kiev, 1917.
The flag of the Kharkov-based "Ukrainian People's Republic of the Soviets" in 1918.
The flag of the Ukrainian SSR (the "Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic") in 1919; note the Ukrainian language acronym "УCPP" in the canton.
The coat of arms of Skoropadsky's Ukrainian State ("Hetmanate"), 1918.
The flag used by Skoropadsky's Ukrainian State in 1918; Petliura's Directorate kept Skoropadsky's flag for their revived Ukrainian People's Republic (November 1918–1921).{{sup|1}}
The flag used by the Kholodny Yar Republic, emblazoned with the phrase "A free Ukraine – or death!".

The Ukrainian War of Independence was a series of conflicts involving many adversaries that lasted from 1917 to 1921 and resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic, most of which was later absorbed into the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of 1922–1991.

Ukrainian People's Republic

Country in Eastern Europe that existed between 1917 and 1920.

The map from The New York Times showing the provisional boundaries of the Ukrainian People's Republic emerged from the collapsed Russian Empire in 1918.
A February 1918 article from The New York Times shows a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by the Ukrainian People's Republic at the time, before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's Republic.
The map from The New York Times showing the provisional boundaries of the Ukrainian People's Republic emerged from the collapsed Russian Empire in 1918.
1919 Ukraine People's Republic Diplomatic passport issued for serving in Switzerland
UPR postcard depicting a group with the yellow-blue flag and anthem lyrics, defending themselves from a Russian double-headed eagle. (November–December 1917)
UPR postage stamp
The government of the UNR in 1920 - Symon Petlura is sitting in the centre.
Proposed borders presented by the Ukrainian delegation at the Paris Conference
Map of Ukraine attached to a memorandum to the United States Secretary of State in 1920.
Language map published by the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in 1914
Mykola Plaviuk, the last President of the Ukrainian People's Republic in exile
10 karbovantsiv (1918)
Provisional borders of Ukraine in 1919

The 18 March 1921 Peace of Riga between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus), and Soviet Ukraine sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.

Constitution of Ukraine

Fundamental law of Ukraine.

Until 8 June 1995, Ukraine's supreme law was the Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Ukrainian SSR (adopted in 1978, with numerous later amendments).


Second-largest city and municipality in Ukraine.

Depiction of legendary founder "Khariton or Kharko" (postcard of the Russian imperial period, c. 1890s)
A 19th-century view of Kharkiv, with the belltower of the Assumption Cathedral dominating the skyline
A view of the Holy Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Kharkiv
Intercession Cathedral with bell tower and Ozeryanskaya church (right) built in Kharkiv in 1689
A view of a modern pedestrian bridge over the Kharkiv River in Kharkiv
A view of the renovated Derzhprom building
A memorial to the thousands of Ukrainian intellectuals murdered by the NKVD during Stalin's Great Purge in 1937–38
A monument to the persecuted kobzars in Kharkiv
Memorial to the thousands of Polish officers executed by the NKVD in Kharkiv as part of the Katyn massacre
A memorial to 23 August 1943, the end of German occupation during World War II
Mirror Stream fountain
Sumska Street in December 2020
Kharkiv and the surrounding area, 2011
The Lopan-Kharkiv river spur
The Assumption or Dormition Cathedral in Kharkiv
The St. Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Kharkiv is one of the tallest Orthodox churches in the world. It was completed on 2 October 1888.
Sumska Street is the main thoroughfare of Kharkiv.
Kvant-2 module - its control system was designed at Khartron in Kharkiv.
Derzhprom building
The Kharkiv Ukrainian Drama Theatre
The Kharkiv Academic Drama Theatre
Academic choir of Kharkiv Philharmonic named after V. Palkin and chief leader of choir, prize winner of the all-Ukrainian choir masters contest, Andriy Syrotenko
M. F. Sumtsov Kharkiv Historical Museum
Art Museum
Railway museum in Kharkiv
National holiday's fireworks on Freedom Square
Gorky park is one of the main family attractions in Kharkiv.
Fountains in Taras Shevchenko's garden
Historical building of Kharkiv Airport
Kharkiv EURO 2012 host city emblem
Metalist Stadium
Bicycles racing competition in Kharkiv at Bicycle Day on 9 July 2016
Inna Bohoslovska, 2010
Valentina Grizodubova, 1938
Mikhail Koshkin, 1998
Yury Nikitin, 2010
Hryhoriy Skovoroda
Karina Smirnoff, 2008
Otto Struve on 1949 US post stamp
Gennady Orlov, 2010
Tamara Press, 1964
Lev Landau, 1962

Kharkiv was the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, from December 1919 to January 1934, after which the capital relocated to Kyiv.

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

One of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1940 to 1991.

1940 Soviet map of the Moldavian SSR
Leonid Brezhnev and Ivan Bodiul during the republic's golden jubilee, 1976
Victory Day celebrations in the Moldavian SSR in 1980
Moldovan flag from 1990
Nicolae Ceaușescu and Ivan Bodiul in Chișinău, 1976
May 1 parade on Victory Square, 1971
Distribution of major ethnic groups, 1989

The republic was formed on 2 August 1940 from parts of Bessarabia, a region annexed from Romania on 28 June of that year, and parts of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, an autonomous Soviet republic within the Ukrainian SSR.


Sovereign state in Central Europe, created in October 1918, when it declared its independence from Austria-Hungary.

Czechoslovakia during the interwar period and the Cold War
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, founder and first president
Czechoslovak troops in Vladivostok (1918)
Czechoslovak declaration of independence rally in Prague on Wenceslas Square, 28 October 1918
A monument to Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Štefánik—both key figures in early Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia in 1928
Linguistic map of Czechoslovakia in 1930
The partition of Czechoslovakia after Munich Agreement
The car in which Reinhard Heydrich was killed in 1942
Territory of the Second Czechoslovak Republic (1938–1939)
Socialist coat of arms in 1960–1989
Spartakiad in 1960
Czechoslovakia after 1969
The Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991
Federal Assembly in Prague
Federative coat of arms in 1990–1992

After World War II, the pre-1938 Czechoslovakia was reestablished, with the exception of Carpathian Ruthenia, which became part of the Ukrainian SSR (a republic of the Soviet Union).

Carpathian Ruthenia

Historic region on the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and the Lemko Region in Poland.

Subcarpathian Rus within Czechoslovakia (1928)
Coat of arms of Carpathian Ukraine, now used by Zakarpattia Oblast.
Subcarpathian Rus within Czechoslovakia (1928)
Carpatho-Rusyn sub-groups – Prešov area Lemkos (left side) and Przemyśl area Ukrainians in folk-costumes. Photo: Village Mokre near Sanok (2007)
August 2006 view from Kamianka-Buzka-Skole-Volovets railroad
Kievan Rus' (11th century)
1885 ethnographic map of the Hungarian Crown
1904 Central Europe – national and linguistic regions (Russen u. Ruthenen in green, Russniaken)
1910 ethnographic map of Austria-Hungary
West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918), incorporating Carpathian Ruthenia
The vast majority of people were peasant farmers
Gregory Žatkovich signing the Declaration of Common Aims at Independence Hall, Philadelphia 10-26-1918.
Linguistic map of Czechoslovakia in 1930
Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939
Carpathian Ruthenian Jews arrive at Auschwitz–Birkenau, May 1944. Without being registered to the camp system, most were killed in gas chambers hours after arriving.
Front page of the Zakarpattia Ukraine newspaper (1944) with manifest of unification with Soviet Ukraine
Hutsuls and their habitations, Carpathian Mountains, c. 1872
Percentage of Hungarian native speakers in Zakarpattia oblast according to 2001 census
Jews from Galicia (left) and Mukachevo (right), 1821
Stylized traditional folk costume of Romanians of Zakarpattia

After the war, it was annexed by the USSR and became part of Soviet Ukraine.

Ukrainian nationalism

Ideology promoting the unity of Ukrainians into their own nation state.

Flag of Ukraine
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery in Kyiv
Postcard published by the Ukrainian Brigade, "United Ukrainians defend against both Polish and Russian forces", 1920
Territory that was claimed by Ukraine according to an old postcard dating 1919
Flag of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army during World War II. The red representing blood and the black representing the Black Soil of Ukraine. This flag is commonly used by modern far-right Ukrainian nationalists.
Ukrainian nationalists demonstrate against the Soviet Union and for an independent Ukraine in 1941
Lviv football fans at a 2010 game against Donetsk. The banner reads "Bandera – our hero."
Fans of FC Karpaty Lviv honoring the Waffen-SS Galizien division, 2013
Euromaidan activists wave Ukraine's official flag, the flag of the Ukrainian People's Self-Defense and a red and black flag used by multiple nationalist organizations vying for Ukraine's independence after both World Wars; it dates back all the way to Ukraine's 16th century, March 2014.
Pro-Ukrainian protestors in Tokyo, Japan, demonstrating support with the flag of Ukraine

In such conditions, the Ukrainian national idea initially continued to develop and even spread to a large territory with traditionally mixed population in the east and south that became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.