Ulaanbaatar

Ulan BatorUrgaUlaanbaatar, MongoliaUlan-BatorUlanbaatarUlaanbataarUlaan BaatarKhüreeUlan Bator, MongoliaIkh Khüree
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia.wikipedia
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Mongolia

MongolRepublic of MongoliaMongolian
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia.
Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population.

List of cities in Mongolia

Cities of Mongolialargest city
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator (Улаанбаатар, literally "Red Hero"), is the capital and largest city of Mongolia.
The higher level administrative unit is the aimag, except for Ulaanbaatar which administrates its own federal district (Nalaikh and Baganuur are administrated by Ulaanbaatar.

Praise of Bogdiin Khuree

It is called Bogdiin Khuree (Богдын Хүрээ, Bogdiĭn Khüree, "Great Holy Khan's Monastery") in the folk song "Praise of Bogdiin Khuree".
Praise of Bogdiin Khuree, also known as Praise of Bogd Dunjingarav, is a Mongolian folk song praising the city of Urga (now known as Ulaanbaatar) in Mongolia.

Mongolian People's Republic

MongoliaPeople's Republic of MongoliaMongolian
When the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulaanbaatar (Улаанбаатар, Ulaanbaatar, classical Mongolian Ulaganbagatur, literally "Red Hero").
In December 1911 the Mongols deposed the Qing Amban in Ulaanbaatar and declared their independence under the leadership of the 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, who was appointed Bogd Khan of Mongolia, breaking away from the Qing dynasty.

Genghis Khan

GenghisChingiz KhanTemüjin
The palace is said to be where Genghis Khan stayed with Yesui Khatun before attacking the Tangut in 1226.
Genghis Khan was probably born in 1162 in Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia, close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar.

Tuul River

TuulTula RiverTula
The municipality is in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1300 m in a valley on the Tuul River.
From there, it travels southwest until it reaches the territory of Ulaanbaatar.

Dzungar Khanate

Zunghar KhanateDzungarDzungars
During the Dzungar wars of the late 17th century, it was even moved to Inner Mongolia.
In 1696, the Manchu defeated Galdan near Ulan Bator, chased him westward and gained control over Outer Mongolia.

Damdin Sükhbaatar

SükhbaatarDamdin SukhbaatarSukhbaatar
However, at the same time that Baron Ungern was taking control of Urga, a Soviet-supported Communist Mongolian force led by Damdin Sükhbaatar was forming in Russia, and in March they crossed the border.
Damdinii Sükhbaatar (Дамдины Сүхбаатар, Damdinii Sykebaatar, ; February 2, 1893 – February 20, 1923) was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921.

Selbe River

Selbe
It settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778.
The river flows through the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar, and merges into the Tuul river.

Bogd Khan

Bogd KhaanJebstundamba Khutukhtu8th Bogd Gegeen
Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name was changed to Niĭslel Khüree (ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ; Нийслэл Хүрээ, "Capital Camp"). Firstly, on 4 February, a mixed Russian/Mongolian force led by White Russian warlord Roman von Ungern-Sternberg captured the city, freeing the Bogd Khan from Chinese imprisonment and killing a part of the Chinese garrison. On 29 December 1911, the 8th Jeptsundamba Khutughtu was declared ruler of an independent Mongolia and assumed the title Bogd Khan.
The new Bogd Gegen arrived in Urga, the capital of Outer Mongolia, in 1874.

Mongolian Revolution of 1911

declaration of independencedeclared independenceOuter Mongolian revolution of 1911
Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name was changed to Niĭslel Khüree (ᠨᠡᠶᠢᠰᠯᠡᠯ ᠬᠦᠷᠢᠶᠡᠨ; Нийслэл Хүрээ, "Capital Camp").
In early 1910 the Qing government appointed Sando(or Sandowa), a Manchu himself and former deputy lieutenant governor of Guihwa, as viceroy of Mongolia in the capital city of Urga (modern Ulaanbaatar), to implement the New Administration.

Baghatur

BahadurbaatarBatyr
On the session of the 1st Great People's Khuraldaan of Mongolia in 1924, a majority of delegates expressed their wish to change the capital city's name to Baatar Khot ("Hero City").
It is also preserved in the modern Turkic and Mongol languages as Turkish Batur/Bahadır, Tatar and Kazakh Батыр (Batyr), Uzbek Batyr and Mongolian Baatar (as in Ulaanbaatar).

Roman von Ungern-Sternberg

Roman Ungern von SternbergBaron UngernUngern von Sternberg
Firstly, on 4 February, a mixed Russian/Mongolian force led by White Russian warlord Roman von Ungern-Sternberg captured the city, freeing the Bogd Khan from Chinese imprisonment and killing a part of the Chinese garrison.
During his five-month occupation of Outer Mongolia, Ungern imposed order on the capital city, Ikh Khüree (now Ulaanbaatar), through fear, intimidation, and brutal violence against his opponents, particularly Bolshevik supporters.

Gandantegchinlen Monastery

Gandan MonasteryGandantegchinlen Khiid MonasteryGandan
In 1910, the amban Sando went to quell a major fight between Gandan lamas and Chinese traders started by an incident at the Da Yi Yu shop in the Baruun Damnuurchin market district.
The Gandantegchinlen Monastery (Гандантэгчинлэн хийд, Gandantegchinlen khiid, short name: Gandan Гандан) is a Mongolian Buddhist monastery in the Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar that has been restored and revitalized since 1990.

Övörkhangai Province

ÖvörkhangaiUvurkhangaiÖvörkhangai aimag
Founded in 1639 as a yurt monastery, Ulaanbaatar, originally Örgöö (palace-yurt), was first located at Lake Shireet Tsagaan nuur (75 km directly east of the imperial capital Karakorum) in what is now Burd sum, Övörkhangai, around 230 km south-west from the present site of Ulaanbaatar, and was intended by the Mongol nobles to be the seat of Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu.
The Arvaikheer Airport (AVK/ZMAH) has one unpaved runway and is served by regular flights to Ulaanbaatar and Altai.

Mongolian Revolution of 1990

1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia1990 Democratic Revolutiondemocratic revolution in 1990
Ulaanbaatar was the site of demonstrations that led to Mongolia's transition to democracy and market economy in 1990.
It was spearheaded by mostly younger people demonstrating on Sükhbaatar Square in the capital Ulaanbaatar.

Kyakhta trade

crossedRusso-Chinese tradestate caravans
Following the Treaty of Kyakhta in 1727, Urga (Ulaanbaatar) was a major point of the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China – mostly Siberian furs for Chinese cloth and later tea.
Private trade continued, much of it going short distances to places like Urga and Tsitsihar.

Bogd Khanate of Mongolia

MongoliaAutonomous MongoliaBogd Khaganate
On 29 December 1911, the 8th Jeptsundamba Khutughtu was declared ruler of an independent Mongolia and assumed the title Bogd Khan.
Urga (modern Ulan Bator), until then known to the Mongolians as the "Great Monastery" (Ikh khüree), was renamed "Capital Monastery" (Niislel khüree) to reflect its new role as the seat of government.

Ugsarmal bair

Soviet-style blocks of flatsother accommodation
During the socialist period, especially following the Second World War, most of the old ger districts were replaced by Soviet-style blocks of flats, often financed by the Soviet Union.
Ugsarmals in Ulaanbaatar, Erdenet and Darkhan are often high-rises, while those in the aimag centers usually have only four floors.

Hohhot

HuhhotHohhot, ChinaHohot
The city's official website lists Moscow, Hohhot, Seoul, Sapporo and Denver as sister cities.
It also has international flights to Taichung, Hong Kong, and Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Buddhism in Mongolia

MongoliaMongolian BuddhismMongolian Buddhist
The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre.
Ikh Huree, as Ulaanbaatar was then known, was the seat of the preeminent living Buddha of Mongolia (the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu, also known as the Bogdo Gegen and later as the Bogd Khan), who ranked third in the ecclesiastical hierarchy after the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama.

Mongolian People's Party

Mongolian People's Revolutionary PartyGeneral secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary PartyMPRP
On 9 March, the Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) government resigned.
In May, the White Russian Baron Ungern brought his forces north from Ikh Khuree and were defeated by joint Mongolian People's Army and Red Army forces.

Trans-Mongolian Railway

Transmongolian Railwaya branch railwayMongolia's railways
The Transmongolian Railway, connecting Ulaanbaatar with Moscow and Beijing, was completed in 1956 and cinemas, theaters, museums etc. were erected.
}} }}The Trans-Mongolian Railway follows an ancient tea-caravan route from China to Russia and connects Ulan-Ude, on the Trans-Baikal (Trans-Siberian) railway in Russia, with the Chinese city of Jining, by way of Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia.

Töv Province

TövTöv aimagTov Province
Ulaanbaatar is governed as an independent first-level region, separate from the surrounding Töv Aimag.
The national capital Ulaanbaatar is located roughly at its center, but the city itself is administrated as an independent municipality.

Gobi Desert

GobiEastern Gobi desert steppeSouth Gobi Desert
The route ran south to Urga, southeast across the Gobi Desert to Kalgan, and southeast over the mountains to Peking.
Between Ulaanbaatar (48°N, 107°W) and the small lake of Iren-dubasu-nor (43.75°N, 111.83333°W), the surface is greatly eroded.