Umayyad conquest of Hispania

Muslim conquestMoorish invasionMuslim invasionIslamic conquestMuslim conquest of HispaniaArab conquestconquestHispaniaMoorish conquest of SpainMuslim conquest of Spain
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.wikipedia
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Visigothic Kingdom

VisigothsVisigothicKing
The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus (756–788).
Most of the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by Umayyad troops from North Africa in 711 AD, with only the northern reaches of Spain remaining in Christian hands.

Al-Walid I

al-Walidal-Walid ibn 'Abd al-MalikAl-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa).
His reign saw the greatest expansion of the Caliphate, as successful campaigns were undertaken in Transoxiana in Central Asia, Sind, Hispania in far western Europe, and against the Byzantines.

Umayyad invasion of Gaul

Umayyad conquest of GaulIslamic advance into Western Europecombined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees
By 717, the combined Arab-Berber force had crossed the Pyrenees into Septimania and Provence (734).
The Umayyad invasion of Gaul in 720 followed immediately on the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.

Gibraltar

🇬🇮GIBGibraltarian
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa).
Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.

Berbers

BerberAmazighBerber tribes
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa).
Yusuf ibn Tashfin was king of the Berber Almoravid dynasty; Tariq ibn Ziyad the general who conquered Hispania; Abbas Ibn Firnas, a prolific inventor and early pioneer in aviation; Ibn Battuta, a medieval explorer who traveled the longest known distances of his time.

Battle of Guadalete

Christian fallconquered at Guadaletedefeated King Roderic
He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair.
The battle was significant as the culmination of a series of Berber attacks and the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.

Roderic

RodrigoKing RodericKing Roderick
He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair. The manner of King Roderic's ascent to the throne is unclear; there are accounts of a dispute with Achila II, son of his predecessor Wittiza.
In history he actually is an extremely obscure figure about whom little can be said with certainty but that he ruled part of Hispania with opponents ruling the rest and was defeated and killed at the Battle of Guadalete by invading Muslims who soon conquered most of the peninsula.

Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsula
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788. At this time, Umayyad troops reached Pamplona, and the Basque town submitted after a compromise was brokered with Arab commanders to respect the town and its inhabitants, a practice that was common in many towns of the Iberian Peninsula.
Under Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Islamic army landed at Gibraltar and, in an eight-year campaign, occupied all except the northern kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.

Julian, Count of Ceuta

Count JulianJulian
There is also a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic and who sought help from Tangier.
According to Arab chroniclers, Julian had an important role in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, a key event in the history of Islam, in which al-Andalus was to play an important part, and in the subsequent history of what were to become Spain and Portugal.

Achila II

AchilaAgilaAkhila
The manner of King Roderic's ascent to the throne is unclear; there are accounts of a dispute with Achila II, son of his predecessor Wittiza.
The kingdom he ruled was restricted to the northeast of the old Hispanic kingdom on account of the Arabo-Berber invasions.

León, Spain

LeónLeoncity of León
In 714, his father, Musa ibn Nusair, advanced and overran Soria, the western Basque regions, Palencia, and as far west as Gijón or León, where a Berber governor was appointed with no recorded opposition.
Founded as the military encampment of the Legio VI Victrix around 29 BC, its standing as an encampment city was consolidated with the definitive settlement of the Legio VII Gemina from 74 AD. Following its partial depopulation due to the Umayyad conquest of the peninsula, León was revived by its incorporation into the Kingdom of Asturias.

Arabs

ArabArabianArabic
He campaigned his way northward after the decisive Battle of Guadalete against the usurper Roderic, after which he was reinforced by an Arab force led by his superior wali Musa ibn Nusair.
Spain (about 800,000 to 1,600,000 – 1,800,000 ), there have been Arabs in Spain since the early 8th century when the Umayyad conquest of Hispania created the state of Al-Andalus.

Tangier

TangerŢanjaTingis
There is also a story of one Julian, count of Ceuta, whose wife or daughter was raped by Roderic and who sought help from Tangier.
While he moved south through central Morocco, he had his deputy at Tangier Tariq ibn Zayid (usually said to be Musa's Berber freedman) launch the beginning of the Muslim invasion of Spain.

Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa

Abd al-AzizAbdelazidAbdul Aziz
During the period of the second (or first, depending on the sources) Arab governor Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa (714–716), the principal urban centres of Catalonia surrendered.
‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr accompanied his father in 712 to aid the Berber general, Tariq, in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania.

Banu Qasi

Qasawibint QasiMutarrif ibn-Musa
The treaty signed with Theudimer set a precedent for the whole of Iberia, and towns surrendering to Umayyad troops experienced a similar fate, including probably the muwallad Banu Qasi based in the Ebro valley, and other counts and landowners.
According to the 10th century Muwallad historian, Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, Count Cassius converted to Islam in 714 as the mawlā (client) of the Umayyads, shortly after their conquest of Hispania.

Pamplona

Pamplona-IruñapamplonesaPompaelo
At this time, Umayyad troops reached Pamplona, and the Basque town submitted after a compromise was brokered with Arab commanders to respect the town and its inhabitants, a practice that was common in many towns of the Iberian Peninsula.
At the time of the Umayyad invasion in 711, the Visigothic king Roderic was fighting the Basques in Pamplona and had to turn his attention to the new enemy coming from the south.

Charles Martel

Charles the HammerCharles 'the Hammer' MartelCharles Martel of the Franks
Around 739, on learning the news of Charles Martel's second intervention in Provence, Uqba ibn al-Hajjaj had to call off an expedition to the Lower Rhone in order to deal with the Berber revolt in the south instead.
Arab and Berber Islamic forces had conquered Spain (711), crossed the Pyrenees (720) and seized Narbonensis, a major dependency of the Visigoths (721–725).

History of the Basques

BasqueBasquesBasque districts
At this time, Umayyad troops reached Pamplona, and the Basque town submitted after a compromise was brokered with Arab commanders to respect the town and its inhabitants, a practice that was common in many towns of the Iberian Peninsula.
Muslim accounts from the period of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania and beginning of 9th century identify the Basques as magi or 'pagan wizards', they were not considered 'people of the Book' (Christians).

Córdoba, Spain

CórdobaCordobaCordova
In 756, Abd ar-Rahman I, a survivor of the recently overthrown Umayyad Dynasty, landed in al-Andalus and seized power in Cordova and Seville, and proclaimed himself emir or malik, removing any mentions of the Abbasid Caliphs from the Friday prayers.
It was a Roman settlement, taken over by the Visigoths, and then taken by Muslim armies in the eighth century.

Emirate of Córdoba

Córdobaemir of CórdobaEmir
The conquest resulted in the destruction of the Visigothic Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Córdoba under Abd ar-Rahman I, who completed the unification of Muslim-ruled Iberia, or al-Andalus (756–788).
After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711–718, the Iberian Peninsula was established as a province under the Umayyad Caliphate.

Muslim conquest of the Maghreb

North AfricaArab conquest7th century advent of Islam
The conquest of Hispania followed the conquest of North Africa.
Due to this, the Umayyad conquest of Hispania completed the Arab conquest of North Africa.

Kingdom of Asturias

AsturiasAsturianAsturians
Rome relied on an alliance with Charlemagne (in war with the Cordovan emirs) to defend its political authority and possessions, and went on to recognize the northern Asturian principality (Gallaecia) as a kingdom apart from Cordova, and Alfonso II as king.
The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Asturian chief Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo). It was the first Christian political entity established after the Umayyad conquest of Visigoth Hispania in 718 or 722.

Al-Hurr ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi

al-HurrAbd ar-Rahman
An early governor (wali) of al-Andalus, al-Hurr ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi, spread the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate up to the Ebro valley and the northeastern borders of Iberia, pacifying most of the territory and initiating in 717 the first forays across the Pyrenees into Septimania.
In 711, an Umayyad army led by freedman Tariq bin Ziyad had been sent to the Iberian peninsula under the orders of North African governor Musa bin Nusair, resulting in its eventual conquest.

Tariq ibn Ziyad

TariqTarikṬāriq ibn Ziyad
During the caliphate of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, forces led by Tariq ibn Ziyad disembarked in early 711 in Gibraltar at the head of an army consisting of Berbers (north-western Africa).

Seville

SevillaSeville, SpainSevillian
In 756, Abd ar-Rahman I, a survivor of the recently overthrown Umayyad Dynasty, landed in al-Andalus and seized power in Cordova and Seville, and proclaimed himself emir or malik, removing any mentions of the Abbasid Caliphs from the Friday prayers.
Seville was taken by the Moors, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712.