Underemployment

underemployedbetter paying jobsdisguisedunderunder-under-employedunder-employmentunderemployment equilibrium
Underemployment is the under-use of a worker due to a job that does not use the worker's skills, or is part time, or leaves the worker idle.wikipedia
193 Related Articles

Unemployment

unemployedunemployment ratejob creation
All meanings involve a situation in which a person is working, unlike unemployment, where a person who is searching for work cannot find a job. Relatedly, in macroeconomics, "underemployment" simply refers to excess unemployment, i.e., high unemployment relative to full employment or the natural rate of unemployment, also called the NAIRU.
The statistic also does not count the "underemployed"—those working fewer hours than they would prefer or in a job that doesn't make good use of their capabilities.

Higher education

post-secondarypost-secondary educationhigher learning
In one usage, underemployment describes the employment of workers with high skill levels and postsecondary education who are working in relatively low-skilled, low-wage jobs.
Also, the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment, credentialism and educational inflation.

Job

occupationday joboccupations
All meanings involve a situation in which a person is working, unlike unemployment, where a person who is searching for work cannot find a job.
Those without paid full-time employment may be categorized as unemployed or underemployed if they are seeking a full-time paid job.

Full employment

full-employmentemploymentEmployment for all
Relatedly, in macroeconomics, "underemployment" simply refers to excess unemployment, i.e., high unemployment relative to full employment or the natural rate of unemployment, also called the NAIRU.
Because people switch jobs, full employment means a stable rate of unemployment around 1 to 2 per cent of the total workforce, but does not allow for underemployment where part-time workers cannot find hours they need for a decent living.

Overqualification

overqualified
Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring full-time work, and overqualification, where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job. 1) "Overqualification", or "overeducation", or the employment of workers with high education, skill levels, or experience in jobs that do not require such abilities. For example, a trained medical doctor with a foreign credential who works as a taxi driver would experience this type of underemployment.
Underemployment

Immigration

immigrantimmigrantsimmigrated
Two common situations which can lead to underemployment are immigrants and new graduates.
Competition from immigrants in a particular profession may aggravate underemployment in that profession, but increase wages for other natives; for instance, a 2017 study in Science found that "the influx of foreign-born computer scientists since the early 1990s... increased the size of the US IT sector... benefited consumers via lower prices and more efficient products... raised overall worker incomes by 0.2 to 0.3% but decreased wages of U.S. computer scientists by 2.6 to 5.1%."

Credentialism and educational inflation

credentialismhigher than is really necessary to perform the workcredential creep
Employers have responded to the oversupply of graduates by raising the academic requirements of many occupations higher than is really necessary to perform the work.
Underemployment

Job guarantee

jobs guaranteeemployer-of-last-resortguarantee employment
Job guarantee
The aim is to replace unemployment and underemployment with paid employment (up to the hours desired by workers), so that those who are at any point in time surplus to the requirements of the private sector (and mainstream public sector) can earn a reasonable living rather than suffer the indignity and insecurity of underemployment, poverty, and social exclusion.

Dead-end job

dead end jobdead-enddead-end career
Dead-end job
Furthermore, positions not regarded as menial may nonetheless qualify as dead-end jobs and forms of underemployment.

Employment

employeeemployeremployees
In one usage, underemployment describes the employment of workers with high skill levels and postsecondary education who are working in relatively low-skilled, low-wage jobs. Underemployment is the under-use of a worker due to a job that does not use the worker's skills, or is part time, or leaves the worker idle. 1) "Overqualification", or "overeducation", or the employment of workers with high education, skill levels, or experience in jobs that do not require such abilities. For example, a trained medical doctor with a foreign credential who works as a taxi driver would experience this type of underemployment.

Management

managermanagersadministration
Underemployment has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including economics, management, psychology, and sociology.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Underemployment has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including economics, management, psychology, and sociology.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Underemployment has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including economics, management, psychology, and sociology.

Poverty

poorlow-incomeindigent
Underemployment is a significant cause of poverty: although the worker may be able to find part-time work, the part-time pay may not be sufficient for basic needs.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
Underemployment is a problem particularly in developing countries, where the unemployment rate is often quite low, as most workers are doing subsistence work or occasional part-time jobs.

Skill

skillscompetencetalent
In one usage, underemployment describes the employment of workers with high skill levels and postsecondary education who are working in relatively low-skilled, low-wage jobs. 1) "Overqualification", or "overeducation", or the employment of workers with high education, skill levels, or experience in jobs that do not require such abilities. For example, a trained medical doctor with a foreign credential who works as a taxi driver would experience this type of underemployment.

Physician

doctormedical doctorphysicians
1) "Overqualification", or "overeducation", or the employment of workers with high education, skill levels, or experience in jobs that do not require such abilities. For example, a trained medical doctor with a foreign credential who works as a taxi driver would experience this type of underemployment.

Taxicab

taxitaxiscab driver
1) "Overqualification", or "overeducation", or the employment of workers with high education, skill levels, or experience in jobs that do not require such abilities. For example, a trained medical doctor with a foreign credential who works as a taxi driver would experience this type of underemployment.

Regional planning

regionalregional plannerregional planners
2) "Involuntary part-time" work, where workers who could (and would like to) be working for a full work-week can only find part-time work. By extension, the term is also used in regional planning to describe regions where economic activity rates are unusually low, due to a lack of job opportunities, training opportunities, or due to a lack of services such as childcare and public transportation.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Underemployment has been studied from a variety of perspectives, including economics, management, psychology, and sociology. 2) "Involuntary part-time" work, where workers who could (and would like to) be working for a full work-week can only find part-time work. By extension, the term is also used in regional planning to describe regions where economic activity rates are unusually low, due to a lack of job opportunities, training opportunities, or due to a lack of services such as childcare and public transportation. 3) "Overstaffing" or "hidden unemployment" or "disguised unemployment" (also called "labor hoarding" ), the practice in which businesses or entire economies employ workers who are not fully occupied—for example, workers currently not being used to produce goods or services due to legal or social restrictions or because the work is highly seasonal.

Training

traineestrainedtrainee
2) "Involuntary part-time" work, where workers who could (and would like to) be working for a full work-week can only find part-time work. By extension, the term is also used in regional planning to describe regions where economic activity rates are unusually low, due to a lack of job opportunities, training opportunities, or due to a lack of services such as childcare and public transportation.

Child care

day carechildcaredaycare
2) "Involuntary part-time" work, where workers who could (and would like to) be working for a full work-week can only find part-time work. By extension, the term is also used in regional planning to describe regions where economic activity rates are unusually low, due to a lack of job opportunities, training opportunities, or due to a lack of services such as childcare and public transportation.

Public transport

public transportationpublic transitmass transit
2) "Involuntary part-time" work, where workers who could (and would like to) be working for a full work-week can only find part-time work. By extension, the term is also used in regional planning to describe regions where economic activity rates are unusually low, due to a lack of job opportunities, training opportunities, or due to a lack of services such as childcare and public transportation.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
3) "Overstaffing" or "hidden unemployment" or "disguised unemployment" (also called "labor hoarding" ), the practice in which businesses or entire economies employ workers who are not fully occupied—for example, workers currently not being used to produce goods or services due to legal or social restrictions or because the work is highly seasonal.