Underground stem

underground trunksubterraneansubterranean trunkunderground stemsunderground trunks
Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface.wikipedia
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Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface.
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
Underground stems are modified plant structures that derive from stem tissue but exist under the soil surface.

Bulb

bulbousbulbsbulbous plants
Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers

Corm

cormscorm-scalesGabi
Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers

Rhizome

rhizomatousrhizomesbotanical rhizome
Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers

Stolon

stolonsstoloniferousrunners
Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers

Tuber

tuberstuberoustuberous roots
Types include bulbs, corms, rhizomes, stolon, spindle - shaped and tubers

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
Plants have two axes of growth, which can be best seen from seed germination and growth.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsplant roots
Seedlings develop two structures or axes of growth, one that develops upward out of the soil, called stems, and structures that develop downward which are called roots.

Root hair

filamentsroot hairsroot hairs.
The roots are modified to have root hairs and branch indiscriminately with cells that take in water and nutrients, while the stems are modified to move water and nutrients to and from the leaves and flowers.

Bud

budsflower budterminal bud
Stems have nodes with buds where leaves and flowers arise at specific locations, while roots do not.

Asexual reproduction

asexualasexuallyreproduce asexually
Plants use under ground stems to multiply their numbers by asexual reproduction and to survive from one year to the next, usually over a period of dormancy.

Dormancy

dormantbrumationbrumate
Being underground protects the stems from the elements during the dormancy period, such as freezing and thawing in winter or extreme heat and drought in summer or fire.

Grazing

grazegrazersgrazed
They can also protect plants from heavy grazing pressure from animals, the plant might be eaten to the ground but new growth can occur from below ground stem that can not be reached by the herbivores.

Herbivore

herbivorousherbivoresherbivory
They can also protect plants from heavy grazing pressure from animals, the plant might be eaten to the ground but new growth can occur from below ground stem that can not be reached by the herbivores.

Onion

onionsonion (Allium cepa)bulbs
A number of underground stems are consumed by people including; onion, potato, ginger, yam and taro.

Potato

potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potatoes
A number of underground stems are consumed by people including; onion, potato, ginger, yam and taro.

Ginger

ginger rootZingiberis Rhizomagingers
A number of underground stems are consumed by people including; onion, potato, ginger, yam and taro.

Yam (vegetable)

yamyamsñame
A number of underground stems are consumed by people including; onion, potato, ginger, yam and taro.

Colocasia esculenta

tarococoyamtaro root
A number of underground stems are consumed by people including; onion, potato, ginger, yam and taro.

Butia microspadix

B. microspadix
Butia microspadix is a very small species of grass-like Butia palm usually with an underground trunk; native to the states of Paraná and São Paulo in Brazil.

Aralia nudicaulis

wild sarsaparillasarsaparillasarsaparilla root
Aralia nudicaulis (commonly wild sarsaparilla, false sarsaparilla, shot bush, small spikenard, wild liquorice, and rabbit root) is a flowering plant of northern and eastern North America which reaches a height of 30 - 60 cm with creeping underground stems.

Butia arenicola

B. arenicolaDistribution
Butia arenicola is a very small species of Butia palm with an underground trunk; native to Paraguay and the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil.

Butia campicola

Butia campicola is a very small species of Butia palm with an underground trunk; native to the cerrados of central Paraguay and south-central Brazil.

Butia pubispatha

B. pubispatha
Butia pubispatha is a very small and extremely rare species of Butia palm with an underground trunk; endemic to the east of the state of Paraná in southeastern Brazil.