Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified GermanyGermanyGerman Wars of Unificationunified1871Wars of Unificationnational unificationunification of the German states
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.wikipedia
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Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)

Treaty of Frankfurtceded to Germany1871
Under the subsequent Treaty of Frankfurt, France relinquished most of its traditionally German regions (Alsace and the German-speaking part of Lorraine); paid an indemnity, calculated (on the basis of population) as the precise equivalent of the indemnity that Napoleon Bonaparte imposed on Prussia in 1807; and accepted German administration of Paris and most of northern France, with "German troops to be withdrawn stage by stage with each installment of the indemnity payment".

House of Habsburg

HabsburgHabsburgsHabsburg dynasty
Prior to 1803, German-speaking Central Europe included more than 300 political entities, most of which were part of the Holy Roman Empire or the extensive Habsburg hereditary dominions. Since the 15th century, with few exceptions, the Empire's Prince-electors had chosen successive heads of the House of Habsburg to hold the title of Holy Roman Emperor.

Hohenlohe

County of Hohenlohe-ÖhringenCounty of Hohenlohe-WeikersheimHohenlohe-Weikersheim
They ranged in size from the small and complex territories of the princely Hohenlohe family branches to sizable, well-defined territories such as the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Prussia.

Free imperial city

Imperial Cityfree imperial citiesImperial Free City
Their governance varied: they included free imperial cities, also of different sizes, such as the powerful Augsburg and the minuscule Weil der Stadt; ecclesiastical territories, also of varying sizes and influence, such as the wealthy Abbey of Reichenau and the powerful Archbishopric of Cologne; and dynastic states such as Württemberg.

Augsburg

Augsburg, GermanyAugusta VindelicorumAugsberg
Their governance varied: they included free imperial cities, also of different sizes, such as the powerful Augsburg and the minuscule Weil der Stadt; ecclesiastical territories, also of varying sizes and influence, such as the wealthy Abbey of Reichenau and the powerful Archbishopric of Cologne; and dynastic states such as Württemberg.

Weil der Stadt

WeilMünklingenFree Imperial City of Weil
Their governance varied: they included free imperial cities, also of different sizes, such as the powerful Augsburg and the minuscule Weil der Stadt; ecclesiastical territories, also of varying sizes and influence, such as the wealthy Abbey of Reichenau and the powerful Archbishopric of Cologne; and dynastic states such as Württemberg.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne

CologneArchdiocese of CologneArchbishopric of Cologne
Their governance varied: they included free imperial cities, also of different sizes, such as the powerful Augsburg and the minuscule Weil der Stadt; ecclesiastical territories, also of varying sizes and influence, such as the wealthy Abbey of Reichenau and the powerful Archbishopric of Cologne; and dynastic states such as Württemberg.

Duchy of Württemberg

WürttembergDuke of WürttembergDukes of Württemberg
Their governance varied: they included free imperial cities, also of different sizes, such as the powerful Augsburg and the minuscule Weil der Stadt; ecclesiastical territories, also of varying sizes and influence, such as the wealthy Abbey of Reichenau and the powerful Archbishopric of Cologne; and dynastic states such as Württemberg.

Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
These lands (or parts of them—both the Habsburg domains and Hohenzollern Prussia also included territories outside the Empire structures) made up the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which at times included more than 1,000 entities.

List of states in the Holy Roman Empire

StateGerman statesmore than 1,000 entities
These lands (or parts of them—both the Habsburg domains and Hohenzollern Prussia also included territories outside the Empire structures) made up the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which at times included more than 1,000 entities.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
Since the 15th century, with few exceptions, the Empire's Prince-electors had chosen successive heads of the House of Habsburg to hold the title of Holy Roman Emperor.

Treaty of Lunéville

Peace of LunévilleLunévillePeace of Luneville
The treaties of Lunéville (1801) and the Mediatization of 1803 secularized the ecclesiastical principalities and abolished most free imperial cities and these territories along with their inhabitants were absorbed by dynastic states.

German mediatisation

mediatisedsecularisationGerman mediatization
The treaties of Lunéville (1801) and the Mediatization of 1803 secularized the ecclesiastical principalities and abolished most free imperial cities and these territories along with their inhabitants were absorbed by dynastic states.

Kingdom of Württemberg

WürttembergKing of WürttembergKgdm Württemberg
This transfer particularly enhanced the territories of Württemberg and Baden.

Grand Duchy of Baden

BadenBaden, GermanyDuchy of Baden
This transfer particularly enhanced the territories of Württemberg and Baden.

Battle of Jena–Auerstedt

Battle of Jena-AuerstedtBattle of JenaJena
In 1806, after a successful invasion of Prussia and the defeat of Prussia and Russia at the joint battles of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon dictated the Treaty of Pressburg and presided over the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which, inter alia, provided for the mediatization of over a hundred petty princes and counts and the absorption of their territories, as well as those of hundreds of imperial knights, by the Confederation's member-states.

Peace of Pressburg (1805)

Peace of PressburgTreaty of PressburgTreaty of Pressburg (1805)
In 1806, after a successful invasion of Prussia and the defeat of Prussia and Russia at the joint battles of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon dictated the Treaty of Pressburg and presided over the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which, inter alia, provided for the mediatization of over a hundred petty princes and counts and the absorption of their territories, as well as those of hundreds of imperial knights, by the Confederation's member-states.

Imperial Knight

imperial knightsReichsritterFree Imperial Knights
In 1806, after a successful invasion of Prussia and the defeat of Prussia and Russia at the joint battles of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon dictated the Treaty of Pressburg and presided over the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, which, inter alia, provided for the mediatization of over a hundred petty princes and counts and the absorption of their territories, as well as those of hundreds of imperial knights, by the Confederation's member-states.

French period

French occupationFrenchFrench control
Under the hegemony of the French Empire (1804–1814), popular German nationalism thrived in the reorganized German states.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

FichteJ. G. FichteJohann Fichte
For the German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte,

Peninsular War

Peninsula WarSpanish War of IndependencePeninsula
The exigencies of Napoleon's campaigns in Poland (1806–07), the Iberian Peninsula, western Germany, and his disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 disillusioned many Germans, princes and peasants alike.

French invasion of Russia

Russian campaignNapoleon's invasion of RussiaPatriotic War of 1812
The exigencies of Napoleon's campaigns in Poland (1806–07), the Iberian Peninsula, western Germany, and his disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812 disillusioned many Germans, princes and peasants alike.

Continental System

Continental BlockadeNapoleonic blockade anti-British policies
Napoleon's Continental System nearly ruined the Central European economy.

Lützow Free Corps

Königlich Preußisches Freikorps von LützowLützow Freikorps(Lützow) Uhlanen Regiment
The creation of student militias such as the Lützow Free Corps exemplified this tendency.