Uniform civil code

Uniform civil code of IndiaCommon Civil Codepersonal lawscodification of Indian law
Uniform civil code is the ongoing point of debate regarding the Indian constitution's mandate to replace personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set of rules governing every citizen.wikipedia
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Secularism in India

secularismIndian secularismsecular
Apart from being an important issue regarding secularism in India & fundamental right to practice religion contained in Article 25, it became one of the most controversial topics in contemporary politics during the Shah Bano case in 1985.
Supporters of this form of secularism claim that any attempt to introduce a uniform civil code, that is equal laws for every citizen irrespective of his or her religion, would impose majoritarian Hindu sensibilities and ideals.

Directive Principles

Directive Principles of State PolicyDirective Principle of State PolicyDirective Principles in India
Article 44 of the Directive Principles expects the state to apply these while formulating policies for the country.
Also, the State shall endeavour to secure a uniform civil code for all citizens per Article 44 and provide free and compulsory education to all children till they attain the age of 14 years per Article 45.

Religion in India

religionIndiareligions of India
Uniform civil code is the ongoing point of debate regarding the Indian constitution's mandate to replace personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set of rules governing every citizen.
The Constitution also suggests a uniform civil code for its citizens as a Directive Principle.

Mohd. Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum

Shah Bano caseShah BanoMuslim Personal Law Bill
Apart from being an important issue regarding secularism in India & fundamental right to practice religion contained in Article 25, it became one of the most controversial topics in contemporary politics during the Shah Bano case in 1985.
The Court also regretted that article 44 of the Constitution of India in relation to bringing of Uniform Civil Code in India remained a dead letter and held that a common civil code will help the cause of national integration by removing disparate loyalties to laws which have conflicting ideologies.

Goa civil code

common family lawGoaown civil code
Goa has a common family law, thus being the only Indian state to have a uniform civil code.
The Goa Civil Code is not strictly a uniform civil code, as it has specific provisions for certain communities.

B. R. Ambedkar

Babasaheb AmbedkarAmbedkarB.R. Ambedkar
As Law Minister, B. R. Ambedkar was in charge of presenting the details of this bill.
During the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil Code.

Bharatiya Janata Party

BJPBhartiya Janata PartyBharatiya Janta Party
The Sangh Parivar and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)—one of the two major political parties in India, had taken up this issue to gain Hindu support.
Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code.

Recognition of same-sex unions in India

India
As of 2017, a draft of a Uniform Civil Code that would legalise same-sex marriage nationwide has been proposed.

Gender equality

gender equityequalitywomen's equality
The call for equal rights for women was only at its initial stages in India at that time and the reluctance of the British government further deterred the passing of such reforms.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Hindu Marriage ActHindu Marriage Act, 1955amendment
Thus, a lesser version of this bill was passed by the parliament in 1956, in the form of four separate acts, the Hindu Marriage Act, Succession Act, Minority and Guardianship Act and Adoptions and Maintenance Act.
According to him, "If the Government really wants to bring about empowerment of women, let them make it open for all sections of the society. Let them bring a uniform civil code. Why is it only for the Hindus?"

Civil code

civilcivil codescivil law
The committee reviewed the 1937 Act and recommended a civil code of marriage and succession; it was set up again in 1944 and send its report to the Indian Parliament in 1947.

Islam in India

Indian MuslimsIndian MuslimMuslims
After the passing of the Hindu Code bill, the personal laws in India had two major areas of application: the common Indian citizens and the Muslim community, whose laws were kept away from any reforms.
Article 44 of the constitution recommends a uniform civil code.

Constitution of India

Indian ConstitutionConstitutionconstitutional
Thus, his vision of family law uniformity was not applied and was added to the Directive principles of the Constitution.

Tufail Ahmad

On 30 November 2016, British Indian intellectual Tufail Ahmad unveiled a 12-point document draft of it, citing no effort by the government since 1950.
On 30 November 2016, Tufail Ahmad unveiled a 12-point document, in which he proposed a "blueprint" for a Uniform Civil Code for India.

Family law

familypersonal lawpersonal status law
Uniform civil code is the ongoing point of debate regarding the Indian constitution's mandate to replace personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set of rules governing every citizen.

Divorce in Islam

talaqtriple talaqdivorce
The debate then focused on the Muslim Personal Law, which is partially based on the Sharia law, permitting unilateral divorce, polygamy and putting it among the legally applying the Sharia law.

Muslim personal law in India

Muslim Personal LawMuslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 legally applying the Sharia law
The debate then focused on the Muslim Personal Law, which is partially based on the Sharia law, permitting unilateral divorce, polygamy and putting it among the legally applying the Sharia law.

Alimony

spousal supportmaintenancealimonies
Personal laws are distinguished from public law and cover marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption and maintenance.

Goa

Goa, IndiaState of GoaGoa (India)
Goa has a common family law, thus being the only Indian state to have a uniform civil code.

Special Marriage Act, 1954

Special Marriage ActSpecial Marriage Act of 1954
The Special Marriage Act, 1954 permits any citizen to have a civil marriage outside the realm of any specific religious personal law.

British Raj

British IndiaIndiaBritish rule
Personal laws were first framed during the British Raj, mainly for Hindu and Muslim citizens.

Separate spheres

domestic spheredifferent spheresdomestic pursuits
The British feared opposition from community leaders and refrained from further interfering within this domestic sphere.

Women's rights

women’s rightswomenwomen's rights movement
The demand for a uniform civil code was first put forward by women activists in the beginning of the twentieth century, with the objective of women's rights, Equality and secularism.

Partition of India

independencepartitionIndian independence
Till Independence in 1947, a few law reforms were passed to improve the condition of women, especially Hindu widows.

Women in India

femalesIndian womenwomen
Till Independence in 1947, a few law reforms were passed to improve the condition of women, especially Hindu widows.