Union (American Civil War)

Map of the division of the states in the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The flag of the United States of America from 1861 to 1863, with 34 stars for all the 34 states. In 1863 a 35th star was added to represent the new state of West Virginia (the loyal northwestern counties of Virginia), and in 1864 a 36th star for Nevada (previously the Nevada Territory).
Great Seal of the United States of America during the war
Charleston Mercury Secession Broadside, 1860—"The Union" had been a way to refer to the American Republic.
The Union had large advantages in men and resources at the start of the war, and the ratio grew steadily in favor of the Union. In the chart, "cauc men" means white men (Caucasian).
Anti-Lincoln Copperhead pamphlet from 1864
Lincoln met with his Cabinet for the first reading of the Emancipation Proclamation draft on July 22, 1862.
Union soldiers on the Mason's Island (Theodore Roosevelt Island), 1861
Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, May 1863
Soldiers of the Fourth United States Colored Infantry at Fort Lincoln, 1865
Field hospital after the Battle of Savage's Station (1862)
New York City draft riots
1862 Greenbacks
Confederate soldiers hanging pro-Union bridge-burning conspirators
Quantrill's 1863 raid burned the town of Lawrence and killed 164 defenders.

During the American Civil War, the Union, also known as the North, referred to the United States led by President Abraham Lincoln.

- Union (American Civil War)

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War Democrat

War Democrats in American politics of the 1860s were members of the HiDemocratic Party who supported the Union and rejected the policies of the Copperheads (or Peace Democrats).

American Civil War

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

The American Civil War (April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865; also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

History of the Republican Party (United States)

One of the two major political parties in the United States.

Abraham Lincoln, the first Republican President (1861–1865)
This Democratic editorial cartoon links John C. Frémont to other radical movements including temperance, feminism, Fourierism, free love, Catholicism and abolition
National Union ticket in 1864 as party men gave these to voters to deposit in the ballot box
African-American members of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives: Sen. Hiram Revels (R-MS) and Reps. Benjamin Turner (R-AL), Robert DeLarge (R-SC), Josiah Walls (R-FL), Jefferson Long (R-GA), Joseph Rainey and Robert B. Elliott (R-SC), 1872
Ulysses S. Grant was the first Republican president to serve for two full terms (1869–1877)
An 1896 Republican poster warns against free silver
Theodore Roosevelt leads party to landslide win in 1904
Theodore Roosevelt's 1908 Farewell speeches sought progressive laws that did not pass Congress
President Theodore Roosevelt watches the party team pull apart on tariff issue
Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon, 1953: the first Republican presidential inauguration in 24 years
Arizona Senator and 1964 Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater was a key figure of the American conservative movement in the 1950s and 1960s
Richard Nixon currently holds the record for most states won in a presidential election, 49 excluding Massachusetts and D.C. in 1972
Ronald Reagan launched the "Reagan Revolution" with his election to the presidency in 1980, providing conservative influence that continues to the present day
George H. W. Bush, the first former vice president to become president by vote rather than by the death or resignation of the sitting president since 1836, ended the Cold War during his term
Newt Gingrich, House Speaker (1995–1999), was the most visible adversary for President Bill Clinton
The presidency of George W. Bush was greatly impacted by the events of the September 11th terrorist attacks
John Boehner, House Speaker (2011–2015), was the most visible adversary for President Barack Obama
2012 Republican presidential nominee Mitt Romney was the first Mormon nominated for president by either major party
Donald Trump, 45th President of the United States

With the election of its first president, Abraham Lincoln, in 1860, the Party's success in guiding the Union to victory in the American Civil War, and the Party's role in the abolition of slavery, the Republican Party largely dominated the national political scene until 1932.

Gettysburg Address

One of the two confirmed photos of Lincoln (center, facing camera) at Gettysburg, taken about noon, just after he arrived and some three hours before his speech. To his right is his bodyguard, Ward Hill Lamon.
David Wills invited Lincoln to speak.
Union soldiers dead at Gettysburg, photographed by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, July 5–6, 1863
Edward Everett delivered a two-hour oration before Lincoln's short remarks.
Detail of Elihu Vedder's mural Government (1896), in the Library of Congress. The title figure bears a tablet inscribed with Lincoln's famous phrase.
The five extant versions of Lincoln's remarks, presented as a single annotated text
The Hay copy, with Lincoln's handwritten corrections
The Bliss copy, on display in the Lincoln Room of the White House
The New York Times article from November 20, 1863, indicates Lincoln's speech was interrupted five times by applause and was followed by "long continued applause."
Cropped view of the Bachrach photo, with a red arrow indicating Lincoln
The Lincoln Address Memorial, designed by Louis Henrick, with bust of Lincoln by Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, erected at the Gettysburg National Cemetery in 1912.
Analysis of this photograph, taken by Alexander Gardner looking northeast on November 19, 1863, rules out the Traditional Site at Soldiers' National Monument as a possible location for the speaker's platform.
Frassanito's analysis places the dedicatory platform at the graves of George Kitzmiller, Israel Yount and John Koch. Erroneous indicators are identified in the distant background.
The words of the Gettysburg Address inside the Lincoln Memorial.

The Gettysburg Address is a speech that U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered during the American Civil War at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of November 19, 1863, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg.

William H. Seward

American politician who served as United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, and earlier served as governor of New York and as a United States Senator.

Seward's wife Frances Adeline Seward
Gubernatorial portrait of William H. Seward
Seward around 1844. Painting by Henry Inman.
Seward in 1851
Seward in 1859
In this March 1860 cartoon, Seward serves "mild beer" in his February 29, 1860, address to position himself as a moderate after the "irrepressible conflict" speech.
Abraham Lincoln in 1860
Seward photographed by the studio of Mathew Brady
Seward's little bell, as depicted in a hostile postwar cartoon
Running The "Machine"
An 1864 cartoon mocking Lincoln's cabinet depicts Seward, William Fessenden, Lincoln, Edwin Stanton, Gideon Welles and other members
Lewis Powell attacking Frederick Seward after attempting to shoot him
Medal presented to George F. Robinson for saving Seward's life
Thomas Nast cartoon from before the 1866 midterm elections. Seward is depicted as Johnson's grand vizier, motioning for the execution of Thaddeus Stevens, and is seen again in the inset, scars from the assassination attempt visible.
Johnson, as Mercutio, wishes a plague on both their Houses (of Congress) as Seward (as Romeo, right) leans over him. Alfred Waud cartoon from 1868.
Signing the Alaska Purchase. Seward is seated at center.
Thomas Nast cartoon on Alaska, 1867. Seward hopes that the purchase will help cool Johnson's fevered political situation.
Statue of Seward by Randolph Rogers in Madison Square Park, New York City

A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a prominent figure in the Republican Party in its formative years, and was praised for his work on behalf of the Union as Secretary of State during the Civil War.

New York City draft riots

The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), sometimes referred to as the Manhattan draft riots and known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of white working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War.

A drawing from The Illustrated London News showing armed rioters clashing with Union Army soldiers in New York City.
Recruiting poster for the Enrollment Act or Civil War Military Draft Act of the federal government for the conscription of troops for the Union Army in New York City on June 23, 1863
John Alexander Kennedy, NYC police superintendent from 1860 to 1870
Bull's Head Hotel, depicted in 1830, was burned after it refused to serve alcohol to the rioters.
Attack on the Tribune building
The Colored Orphan Asylum which was burned.
Rioters attacking a building on Lexington Avenue.

When the Union entered the war, New York City had many sympathizers with the South.

Southern United States

Geographic and cultural region of the United States of America.

Texas Hill Country
Bluegrass region, Kentucky
Glass Mountains, Oklahoma
North Carolina's Appalachian Mountains
Field of yellow wildflowers in Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana
Pearl River backwater in Mississippi
Misty Bluff along the Buffalo River, Ozark Mountains, Arkansas
Tidal wetlands of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland
Cherry River in West Virginia
The highlands of Grayson County in Southwest Virginia
1st Maryland Regiment holding the line at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, 1781
The siege of Yorktown prompted Great Britain's surrender in North America during the American Revolutionary War, 1781
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, circa 1790)
Grove Plantation in Tallahassee, Florida. Known officially as the Call/Collins House at the Grove. Built circa 1840.
Horse race meeting at Jacksonville, Alabama, 1841
Historic Southern United States. The states in light red were considered "border states", and gave varying degrees of support to the Southern cause although they remained in the Union. This illustration depicts the original, trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and thus does not show West Virginia (which separated from Virginia in 1863) separately. Although members of the Five Tribes in Indian Territory (today part of Oklahoma) aligned themselves with the Confederacy, the region is not shaded because at the time it was a territory, not a state.
Atlanta's railroad roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
An African American family, photo-graphed by O'Pierre Havens, circa 1868
A Home on the Mississippi, by Currier and Ives, 1871
Child laborers in Bluffton, South Carolina, 1913
An illustration from Houston: Where Seventeen Railroads Meet the Sea, 1913
Photo of sharecropper family in Walker County, Alabama, circa 1937
Naval Air Station Miami, circa 1942–43
Street musicians in Maynardville, Tennessee, photographed in 1935
Alabama plays Texas in American football for the 2010 BCS National Championship Game
Houston vs Texas face-off during the 2013 Lone Star Series in the American League West division of Major League Baseball
The start of the 2015 Daytona 500, the biggest race in NASCAR, at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida
A rally against school integration in Little Rock, 1959.
U.S. president Lyndon B. Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Bill Clinton, newly elected Governor of Arkansas speaking with Jimmy Carter in 1978. Carter and Clinton were both Southern Democrats and elected to the presidencies in 1976 and 1992.
Racial segregation was required by state laws in the South and other U.S. states until 1964.
Washington, D.C.
New Orleans
University of Texas at Austin
Virginia Tech
University of Miami
Rice University

During 1860 and 1861, eleven Southern states seceded from the Union, forming the Confederate States of America.

Abraham Lincoln

American lawyer and statesman who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in 1865.

Portrait by Alexander Gardner, November 1863
The farm site where Lincoln grew up in Spencer County, Indiana
Lincoln's home in Springfield, Illinois
Lincoln in his late 30s as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. Photo taken by one of Lincoln's law students around 1846.
Lincoln in 1857
Lincoln in 1858, the year of his debates with Stephen Douglas over slavery
A portrait of Dred Scott, petitioner in Dred Scott v. Sandford
Abraham Lincoln (1860) by Mathew Brady, taken the day of the Cooper Union speech
A Timothy Cole wood engraving taken from a May 20, 1860, ambrotype of Lincoln, two days following his nomination for president
Headlines on the day of Lincoln's inauguration portended hostilities with the Confederacy, Fort Sumter being attacked less than six weeks later.
March 1861 inaugural at the Capitol building. The dome above the rotunda was still under construction.
Lincoln with officers after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 1. Col. Delos Sackett; 4. Gen. George W. Morell; 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer.
Running the Machine: An 1864 political cartoon satirizing Lincoln's administration – featuring William Fessenden, Edwin Stanton, William Seward, Gideon Welles, Lincoln, and others
Lincoln and McClellan
Lincoln, absent his usual top hat, is highlighted at Gettysburg.
An electoral landslide for Lincoln (in red) in the 1864 election; southern states (brown) and territories (gray) not in play
A poster of the 1864 election campaign with Lincoln as the candidate for president and Andrew Johnson as the candidate for vice president
Lincoln's second inaugural address in 1865 at the almost completed Capitol building
A political cartoon of Vice President Andrew Johnson (a former tailor) and Lincoln, 1865, entitled The 'Rail Splitter' At Work Repairing the Union. The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Shown in the presidential booth of Ford's Theatre, from left to right, are assassin John Wilkes Booth, Abraham Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, Clara Harris, and Henry Rathbone.
Funeral of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, painting by George Peter Alexander Healy in 1869
Lincoln in February 1865, two months before his death
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln cent, an American coin portraying Lincoln
Lincoln's image carved into the stone of Mount Rushmore|alt=See caption
Abraham Lincoln, a 1909 bronze statue by Adolph Weinman, sits before a historic church in Hodgenville, Kentucky.|alt=See caption
The Lincoln memorial postage stamp of 1866 was issued by the U.S. Post Office exactly one year after Lincoln's death.
Painting of Abraham Lincoln for the U.S. Capitol, by Ned Bittinger

Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War and succeeded in preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, bolstering the federal government, and modernizing the U.S. economy.

Salmon P. Chase

American politician and jurist who served as the sixth chief justice of the United States.

Photograph by Mathew Brady, c. 1860-1865
Coat of Arms
The Salmon P. Chase Birthplace in Cornish, New Hampshire
Chase as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Bureau of Engraving and Printing portrait of Chase as Secretary of the Treasury
The first issue of $1 notes in 1862 as legal tender, featuring Chase
Salmon P. Chase, Treasury Secretary, scribes "In God is our Trust," scratches out "is our" and overwrites "We" to arrive at "In God We Trust" in a December 9, 1863, letter to James Pollock, Director of the Philadelphia Mint.
Chase as Chief Justice
The Chase Court, 1866
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Samuel Nelson administers oath to Chief Justice Chase for the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson
Grave of Salmon Chase in Spring Grove Cemetery; a docent is dressed in period clothing.
Chase depicted on the 1934 $10,000 gold certificate

Chase served in that position from 1861 to 1864, working hard to ensure the Union was well-financed during the Civil War.

Radical Republicans

The Radical Republicans (later also known as "Stalwarts" ) were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from the founding of the Republican Party in 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in the Compromise of 1877.

U.S. Rep. Thaddeus Stevens
Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury
Henry Winter Davis, one of the authors of the Wade–Davis Manifesto opposing Lincoln's "ten percent" reconstruction plan
Edwin McMasters Stanton, Lincoln's Secretary of War, whom Johnson tried to remove from office
U.S. Senator Charles Sumner
"Grant's Last Outrage in Louisiana" art in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of January 23, 1875

Radicals pushed for the uncompensated abolition of slavery, while Lincoln wanted to pay slave owners who were loyal to the Union.