Union Army

Flag of the United States from 1863 until 1865 (35 states/stars)
Union private infantry uniform
Recruiting poster for the 1st Battalion New York Mounted Rifles
General George B. McClellan with staff and dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Philippe of France), and on the very right – the prince's nephew, Count de Paris
The champions of the Union – 1861 lithograph by Currier & Ives
Officers of the 3rd Massachusetts Heavy Artillery Regiment, Washington, D.C. (1865)
Non-commissioned officers of the 93rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
The 26th U.S. Colored Volunteer Infantry on parade, Camp William Penn, Pennsylvania, 1865
Twenty-year-old German immigrant John Haag of Company B, 26th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment (August 1862)
Portrait of an African American Union soldier at Benton Barracks
Kady Brownell, a vivandière from Rhode Island
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863

The land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states.

- Union Army

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William Tecumseh Sherman

American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.

Photograph by Mathew Brady of Sherman at Washington, D.C., in May 1865. The black ribbon of mourning on his left arm is for President Abraham Lincoln.
Sherman's childhood home in Lancaster
Young Sherman in military uniform
California Registered Historic Landmark plaque at the location in Jackson Square, San Francisco, of the branch of the Bank of Lucas, Turner & Co. that Sherman directed from 1853 to 1857
Two cannons on display in front of the Military Science building at Louisiana State University, which were used at the Battle of Fort Sumter and procured by Sherman for the university after the U.S. Civil War.
Portrait by Mathew Brady, c. undefined 1864
Oil portrait of Sherman by George P. A. Healy, 1866
Engraving depicting Admiral Porter's flotilla of gunships and transports arriving below Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. General Sherman is rowing out to the flagship, the USS Benton, in a yawl.
Map of the Battles for Chattanooga, 1863
Map of Sherman's campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas, 1864–1865
Sherman on horseback at Federal Fort No. 7, after the Atlanta Campaign, September 1864
Green–Meldrim House, which served as Sherman's headquarters after his capture of Savannah in December 1864
The Burning of Columbia, South Carolina (1865) by William Waud for Harper's Weekly
From left to right, Sherman, Grant, Lincoln, and Porter meet on board the River Queen on March 27, 1865, near City Point, Virginia. The 1868 oil painting The Peacemakers by G. P. A. Healy is in the White House collection.
Sherman with Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower, photographed by Mathew Brady, May 1865
Portrait by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy, between 1865 and 1880
Photograph by G. N. Barnard of Sherman's troops destroying a railroad in Atlanta, 1864
An 1868 engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting the March to the Sea
Map of Sherman's advance from Atlanta to Goldsboro
Cover of sheet music for a song celebrating the March to the Sea (1865)
Sherman (third from left) and other Indian Peace Commissioners in council with native chiefs and headmen, at the signing of the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868
Portrait of Sherman in the frontispiece of the second edition of his Memoirs (1886). The engraving is based on a photograph taken ca. 1885 by Napoleon Sarony.
Shoulder strap insignia, introduced by Sherman in 1872 for his use as General of the Army
Sherman in his later years, in civilian evening clothes
Sherman's death mask
William Tecumseh Sherman monument by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 1902, located at Grand Army Plaza in Manhattan, New York, incorporates a statue of Nike titled Victory

He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), achieving recognition for his command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the scorched-earth policies that he implemented against the Confederate States.

Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
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Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

Previously, as Commanding General, he led the Union Army to victory in the American Civil War in 1865 and thereafter briefly served as Secretary of War.

Robert E. Lee

Confederate general who served the Confederate States of America in the American Civil War, during which he was appointed the overall commander of the Confederate States Army.

Lee in March 1864
Lee at age 31 in 1838, as a Lieutenant of Engineers in the U.S. Army
Robert E. Lee, around age 38, and his son William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, around age 8, c.1845
Robert E. Lee around age 43, when he was a brevet lieutenant-colonel of engineers, c. 1850
Lee in uniform, 1863
Lee mounted on Traveller (September 1866)
Battle of Gettysburg, by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee with son Custis (left) and aide Walter H. Taylor (right) by Brady, April 16, 1865
Lee in 1869 (photo by Levin C. Handy)
General Lee and his Confederate officers in their first meeting since Appomattox, August 1869.
Oath of amnesty submitted by Robert E. Lee in 1865
Robert E. Lee, oil on canvas, Edward Calledon Bruce, 1865. Virginia Historical Society
Robert Edward Lee in art at the Battle of Chancellorsville in a stained glass window of the Washington National Cathedral
Facade view of Arlington House, the Robert E. Lee Memorial — at Arlington National Cemetery, in Virginia, pictured in 2006
Unveiling of the Equestrian Statue of Robert E. Lee, May 29, 1890, Richmond, Virginia
The removal of Lee's statue from a monument in New Orleans
Stained glass of Lee's life in the National Cathedral
Robert E. Lee, National Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C. Edward Virginius Valentine, sculptor, 1909
Robert E Lee, Virginia Monument, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Frederick William Sievers, sculptor, 1917
Robert E. Lee Monument by Mercié, Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia, 1890
Statue of Lee at the Confederate War Memorial, Dallas, 1896
Statue of Lee in Murray, Kentucky
University Chapel on the campus of Washington and Lee University

During the war, Lee earned a solid reputation as a skilled tactician, for which he was revered by his officers and men as well as respected and feared by his adversaries in the Union Army.

Southern Unionist

In the United States, Southern Unionists were white Southerners living in the Confederate States of America opposed to secession.

Newton Knight (Mississippi), leader of the Knight Company and one of the founders of the Free State of Jones.
Sam Houston (Texas), who was President of the Republic of Texas before its annexation to the United States in 1846, was a prominent Southern Unionist.
David Farragut (Tennessee) was made rear admiral in the Union Navy after capturing New Orleans in the spring of 1862.
Winfield Scott (Virginia), general-in-chief of the Union Army, was a military advisor to Abraham Lincoln, and developed the Anaconda Plan to cut the Confederacy in half.

Others refused to fight, went North or stayed North to enlist in the Union Army, or fought informally as partisans in the South.

Henry Halleck

Senior United States Army officer, scholar, and lawyer.

Halleck in uniform, c. 1865
Elizabeth Hamilton
Gen. Halleck in The champions of the Union, lithograph by Currier & Ives, 1861
General Henry Wager Halleck
Halleck (standing, fifth from left) was present at the death of Abraham Lincoln
Burial site at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York

Early in the American Civil War, Halleck was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater.

Confederate States Army

The military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861–1865), fighting against the United States forces in order to uphold the institution of slavery in the Southern states.

Battle flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
Private Edwin Francis Jemison, whose image became one of the most famous portraits of the young soldiers of the war
A cartoon from the war, showing the Confederates forcibly drafting a Unionist man into the Confederate army. The Unionist man objects, with the Confederates threatening to lynch him if he does not comply.
An 1861 Confederate recruiting poster from Virginia, urging men to join the Confederate cause and fight off the U.S. Army, which it refers to as a "brutal and desperate foe"
CSA M1857 Napoleon Artillery Piece
General Robert E. Lee, the Confederacy's most famous general
An 1895 illustration showing the uniforms of the Confederate Army contrasted with those of the U.S. Army
A painting of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fighting the U.S. Army at Spotsylvania in 1864
A group of Confederate soldiers-possibly an artillery unit captured at Island No. 10 and taken at POW Camp Douglas (Chicago); photograph possibly by D. F. Brandon
Confederate troops marching south on N Market Street, Frederick, Maryland, during the Civil War
A Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, 1903
Jackson McCurtain, Lieutenant Colonel of the First Choctaw Battalion in Oklahoma, CSA
1862 illustration showing Confederates escorting kidnapped African American civilians south into slavery. A similar instance occurred in Pennsylvania when the Army of Northern Virginia invaded it in 1863 to fight the U.S. at Gettysburg.
An 1862 illustration of a Confederate officer forcing slaves at gunpoint to fire a cannon at U.S. soldiers in battle. A similar instance occurred at the first Battle of Bull Run, where slaves were forced by the Confederates to load and fire a cannon at U.S. forces.
An 1864 cartoon lampooning the Confederacy's deliberating on the use of black soldiers, showing them defecting en masse towards U.S. lines if such proposals were adopted.
"Marlboro", an African-American body servant to a white Confederate soldier
Julian Scott's 1873 painting, Surrender of a Confederate Soldier
Corporal of the Artillery division of the Confederate Army
Confederate mortar crew at Warrington, Florida in 1861, across from Fort Pickens
Confederate artillery at Charleston Harbor, 1863
Lt Col. E. V. Nash, 4th Georgia Infantry Doles-Cook Brigade, who was killed in 1864
<Center>General (CSA)</Center>
<Center>Colonel (Infantry shown)</Center>
<Center>Lieutenant-colonel (Headquarters shown)</Center>
<Center>Major (Medical Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>Captain (Marine Corps shown)</Center>
<Center>1st Lieutenant (Artillery shown)</Center>
<Center>2nd Lieutenant (Cavalry shown)</Center>

As in the U.S. Army, the Confederate Army's soldiers were organized by military specialty.

George B. McClellan

American soldier, Civil War Union general, civil engineer, railroad executive, and politician who served as the 24th governor of New Jersey.

Photograph by Mathew Brady, 1861
The Julian Scott portrait of McClellan in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
George B. McClellan and Mary Ellen Marcy (Nelly) McClellan
Patriotic cover honoring the arrival of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan in Washington, D.C., on July 26, 1861
General George B. McClellan with staff & dignitaries (from left to right): Gen. George W. Morell, Lt. Col. A.V. Colburn, Gen. McClellan, Lt. Col. N.B. Sweitzer, Prince de Joinville (son of King Louis Phillippe of France), and on the very right—the prince's nephew, Count de Paris
"Quaker guns" (logs used as ruses to imitate cannons) in former Confederate fortifications at Manassas Junction
Battle of Seven Pines
Seven Days' Battles, June 25 – July 1, 1862
Federal troops under heavy attack at the Battle of Gaines's Mill, sketched by Alfred R. Waud and published in Harper's Weekly, July 26, 1862
Wounded men after the Battle of Savage's Station, one of the Seven Days Battles
McClellan riding through Frederick, Maryland, September 12, 1862 (From Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper)
Maryland campaign, actions September 3–15, 1862
Battle of South Mountain
Overview of the Battle of Antietam
Lincoln with McClellan and staff after the Battle of Antietam. Notable figures (from left) are 5. Alexander S. Webb, Chief of Staff, V Corps; 6. McClellan;. 8. Dr. Jonathan Letterman; 10. Lincoln; 11. Henry J. Hunt; 12. Fitz John Porter; 15. Andrew A. Humphreys; 16. Capt. George Armstrong Custer
Lincoln in McClellan's tent after the Battle of Antietam
An anti-McClellan poster from Harper's Weekly, drawn by Thomas Nast, showing rioters assaulting children, slave-catchers chasing runaway slaves, and a woman being sold at a slave auction
Currier and Ives print of the McClellan–Pendleton Democratic presidential party ticket, 1864. Lithograph with watercolor.
Cartoon of McClellan used by his political opponents in 1864 presidential campaign
McClellan photographed by William S. Warren, circa 1880
Major General George B. McClellan on Connecticut Avenue in Washington, D.C.
McClellan statue in front of Philadelphia City Hall

Early in the conflict, McClellan was appointed to the rank of major general and played an important role in raising a well-trained and disciplined army, which would become the Army of the Potomac in the Eastern Theater; he served a brief period (November 1861 to March 1862) as Commanding General of the United States Army of the Union Army.

Army of the Tennessee

The Siege of Vicksburg
Brigadier General Grant and staff, Cairo, October 1861
Battle of Fort Henry and the movements to Fort Donelson.
Shiloh: Crucible of the Army of the Tennessee
General Henry Wager Halleck
Grant's Operations against Vicksburg
Grant discussing the terms of the capitulation of Vicksburg with defeated Confederate General Pemberton
Major General Sherman, second commander of the Army of the Tennessee
Major General McPherson, third commander of the Army of the Tennessee
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's Carolinas Campaign
General Sherman at war's end with Generals Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower; Howard and Logan were the last two commanders of the Army of the Tennessee

The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River.

United States Army

Land service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

The storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States as an independent state.
General Andrew Jackson standing on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812
The Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War
Army soldiers in 1890
U.S. Army troops assaulting a German bunker in France, c. 1918
U.S. soldiers hunting for Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign
U.S. Army soldiers observing an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War
US tanks and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, 1961
A U.S. Army infantry patrol moving up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To, South Vietnam during Operation Hawthorne
U.S. Army soldiers preparing to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during Operation Just Cause
M1 Abrams tanks moving out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the Gulf War, February 1991
U.S. Army Rangers taking part in a raid during an operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan
U.S. Army soldiers with the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division returning fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011
Organization of the United States Army within the Department of Defense
U.S. Army organization chart
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U.S. Army soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conducting an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey
U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq
The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performing a mock charge with the horse detachment
U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrolling a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan
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U.S. Army Rangers practicing fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg
A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assisting Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq on 18 July 2016
U.S. Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015
A Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used for ballistic missile protection
A U.S. soldier on patrol in Iraq with the support of a Humvee vehicle
3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq
The 2020 Army Greens uniform
An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, wearing ASUs, representing the United States at the 2010 Victory Day commemoration in Moscow
The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform

Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.

William Rosecrans

American inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer.

Rosecrans's principal opponent, Gen. Braxton Bragg
A romantic image of Rosecrans at Murfreesboro, January 2, 1863
Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood
Rosecrans in later life
Opening of Iuka-Corinth Campaign
Battle of Iuka
Second phase of the Iuka-Corinth Campaign
Battle of Corinth, October 3, 1862
Battle of Corinth, October 4, 1862
Movements and positions the night of December 30 to December 31.
December 31, 8:00 a.m.
December 31, 11:00 a.m.
January 2, 4:00 p.m.
Initial movements in the Chickamauga Campaign, August 15 – September 8, 1863
September 18 movements on the eve of the Battle of Chickamauga
Actions, morning of September 19
Actions, early afternoon of September 19
Actions, late afternoon to dark, September 19
Polk's Right Wing assaults, morning of September 20
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Defense of Horseshoe Ridge and Union retreat, afternoon and evening of September 20
U.S.A.T. Rosecrans at the foot of University Street next to U.S.A.T. Lawton
U.S.A.T. Rosecrans and Lawton docked at the foot of University St. in Seattle, preparing to transport U.S. troops to China, 1900
U.S.A.T. Rosecrans sailing for Nome. With Co's A and K 7th Reg. No. 1.
Sailing out of Seattle

He gained fame for his role as a Union general during the American Civil War.