Union of Lublin

Lublin UnionTreaty of Lublinunion of Poland and Lithuaniahad united withUnion1569 uniona unioncreated in 1569creation of the Commonwealthexpected union
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time.wikipedia
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Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time.
The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.

Lublin

Lublin, PolandLubelskieDistrikt Lublin
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time.
The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolandPolish
The Union of Lublin (unia lubelska; Liublino unija) was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest countries in Europe at the time.
The Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, who was crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland.

Jagiellonian dynasty

Jagiellon dynastyJagiellonJagiellonian
It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages.
The personal union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (converted in 1569 with the Treaty of Lublin into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onward.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages.
Eventually, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Sigismund II Augustus

Zygmunt AugustSigismund IISigismund Augustus
It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages.
In 1569 he oversaw the signing of the Union of Lublin between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and introduced an elective monarchy.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
Sometimes identified as the moment at which the szlachta (including Lithuanians/Ruthenians) rose to the height of their power, establishing a democracy of noblemen as opposed to absolute monarchy.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Grand Duchy and its neighbouring Kingdom became a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

List of rulers of Lithuania

Grand Duke of LithuaniaPresident of LithuaniaPresident
The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common Senate and parliament (the Sejm).
In 1569 the Union of Lublin was signed and a new entity—the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth—emerged.

Sejm

Sejm 2001-2005Polish ParliamentSejm 1997-2001
The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common Senate and parliament (the Sejm).
After the Union of Lublin in 1569, the Kingdom of Poland became, through personal union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and thus the Sejm was supplemented with new envoys from among the Lithuanian nobility.

Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars

Muscovite–Lithuanian WarMuscovite-Lithuanian WarsMuscovite wars
Lithuania had been increasingly on the losing side of the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars, however, and by the second half of the 16th century, it faced the threat of total defeat in the Livonian war and incorporation into Russia.
After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III and Vasily III, the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

List of Polish monarchs

King of PolandDuchy of PolandPolish king
The Commonwealth was ruled by a single elected monarch who carried out the duties of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and governed with a common Senate and parliament (the Sejm).
This era of progress, also known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age.

Duchy of Livonia

LivoniaPolish LivoniaDucatus Ultradunensis
The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569, it became a joint domain of the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy.

Ukraine

UkrainianUKRUkrainia
Those historic lands of Rus' are over half of modern Ukraine and were then a substantial portion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania's territory.
In 1569 the Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and much Ukrainian territory was transferred from Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, becoming Polish territory de jure.

Vilnius Voivodeship

VilniusVilnius VoivodshipVilna Voivodeship
After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.
After the Union of Lublin in 1569 which formed the Commonwealth, Grand Duchy retained much of its autonomy, and Vilnius Voivodeship remained its capital voivodeship, just as Vilnius remained its capital city, although the capital of the Commonwealth was first in Cracow (Cracow Voivodeship) and later in Warsaw (Masovian Voivodeship).

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

Kingdom of PolandPolish CrownPoland
It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.
Prior to the 1569 Union of Lublin, Crown territories may be understood as those of Poland proper, inhabited by Poles, or other areas under the sovereignty of Polish nobility.

Kiev

KyivKiev, UkraineKyiv, Ukraine
After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.
With the 1569 (Union of Lublin), when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established, the Lithuanian-controlled lands of the Kiev region (Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlachia) were transferred from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, and Kiev became the capital of Kiev Voivodeship.

Bratslav

BracławBreslovBraclaw
Bratslav and eastern Podolia were also transferred to Poland.
Bratslav belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until the Lublin Union of 1569, when it became a voivodeship center in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland as part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Podlachia

PodlasieSouth PodlasiePadliašša
After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.
In 1569, after the Union of Lublin, Podlasie was ceded to the Kingdom of Poland.

Władysław II Jagiełło

JogailaWładysław JagiełłoWladyslaw Jagiello
Therefore, the Union was an attempt to preserve the continuity of his dynasty's work since the personal (but not constitutional) union of Poland and Lithuania at the marriage of Jadwiga of Poland and Wladyslaw II Jagiello.
By the time of the Union of Lublin in 1569, there was not much difference between the administrative and judicial systems in force in Lithuania and Poland.

Polish–Lithuanian union

Polish-Lithuanian UnionPoland-LithuaniaPoland–Lithuania
The Union was an evolutionary stage in the Polish–Lithuanian alliance and personal union, necessitated also by Lithuania's dangerous position in wars with Russia.

Livonian War

Livonian WarsLivonianLivonian campaign
Lithuania had been increasingly on the losing side of the Muscovite-Lithuanian Wars, however, and by the second half of the 16th century, it faced the threat of total defeat in the Livonian war and incorporation into Russia.
In 1569, the Treaty of Lublin unified Poland and Lithuania into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Polonization

PolonizedPolonisationpolonised
The Lublin Union accelerated the process of Polonization.
In the 1569 Union of Lublin, the Ruthenian territories controlled by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were transferred to the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz

Krystyna ZborowskaIvan Hieronimowicz ChodkiewiczJan Hieronim Chodkiewicz
The Lithuanians were forced to return to the Sejm under the leadership of Jan Hieronimowicz Chodkiewicz (father of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz) and to continue negotiations, using slightly different tactics from those of Radziwiłł.
As his uncle he was a strong opponent to the Union of Lithuania with Poland.

Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł

Mikołaj "Rudy" RadziwiłłMikalojus Radvila RudasisMikołaj Radziwiłł
After most of the Lithuanian delegation under the leadership of Vilnius Voivodeship's Mikołaj "Rudy" Radziwiłł left Lublin on 1 March, the king announced the incorporation into the Crown of Podlachia, Volhynia and the Kiev palatinate (on 6 June), with wide approval from the local gentry.
Mikołaj Radziwiłł became an advocate of Lithuanian sovereignty and thus a vocal opponent of political union with Poland, (Union of Lublin, 1569).

Podolia

PodilliaPodolePodilia
Bratslav and eastern Podolia were also transferred to Poland.
After the death of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas (Vitovt) in 1430, Podolia was incorporated into Podolian Voivodeship of the Polish Crown, with the exception of its eastern part, the Province of Bratslav, which remained with Lithuania until its union with Poland in the Union of Lublin of 1569.