Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth Africanapartheid-era South Africacolony of South AfricaSouth AfricansBritish Imperial South AfricaBritish South Africacolonial British rulethe newly formed union
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.wikipedia
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Colony of Natal

NatalGovernor of the Colony of NatalLieutenant-governor of the Colony of Natal
It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony.
It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
It included the territories that were formerly a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.
The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS ) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.

Orange River Colony

Orange Rivera British colonycolony
It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony.
The colony ceased to exist in 1910, when it was absorbed into the Union of South Africa as Orange Free State Province.

South West Africa

South-West AfricaoccupationSouth African rule
Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of South West Africa (now known as Namibia) as a League of Nations mandate.
Previously the colony of German South West Africa from 1884, it was made a League of Nations mandate of the British-ruled Union of South Africa following Germany's losses in World War I.

Dominion

Dominionsdominion statusBritish Dominion
Like Canada and Australia, the Union of South Africa was a self-governing autonomous dominion of the British Empire.
They included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

South African Republic

TransvaalTransvaal RepublicZuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
It included the territories that were formerly a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.
Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Transvaal Colony became Transvaal Province.

South African Constitution of 1961

Constitution of 19611961 Constitution1961 Republic
The Union came to an end with the enactment of the constitution of 1961, by which it became a republic and temporarily left the Commonwealth.
Legally, the Union of South Africa, which had existed since 1910, came to an end and was re-established as the "Republic of South Africa".

Provincial council (South Africa)

provincial councilprovincial councils
The Union of South Africa was a unitary state, rather than a federation like Canada and Australia, with each colony's parliaments being abolished and replaced with provincial councils.
They were created at the foundation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, and abolished in 1986 when they were replaced by a strengthened executive appointed by the State President.

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria (Transvaal), Parliament would be in Cape Town (Cape Province), the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein (Orange Free State).
The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa.

Louis Botha

BothaGeneral BothaGeneral Louis Botha
Louis Botha, formerly a Boer general, was appointed first Prime Minister of the Union, heading a coalition representing the white Afrikaner and English-speaking British diaspora communities.
Louis Botha (27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state.

Cape Town

Cape Town, South AfricaCapeCape Town, Western Cape
Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria (Transvaal), Parliament would be in Cape Town (Cape Province), the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein (Orange Free State).
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal.

Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein, South AfricaTempebloem
Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria (Transvaal), Parliament would be in Cape Town (Cape Province), the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein (Orange Free State).
In 1910 it became the Judicial capital of the Union of South Africa

Pietermaritzburg

Maritzburgdefining moment in 1893history
Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg (Natal) were given financial compensation.
In 1910, when the Union of South Africa was formed, Natal became a province of the Union, and Pietermaritzburg remained the capital.

Jan Smuts

SmutsGeneral SmutsJan Christiaan Smuts
Most English-speaking whites in South Africa supported the United Party of Jan Smuts, which favoured close relations with the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth.
In addition to holding various cabinet posts, he served as prime minister of the Union of South Africa from 1919 until 1924 and from 1939 until 1948.

League of Nations

Leaguethe League of NationsCouncil of the League of Nations
Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of South West Africa (now known as Namibia) as a League of Nations mandate.
In expelling the Soviet Union, the League broke its own rule: only 7 of 15 members of the Council voted for expulsion (United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Bolivia, Egypt, South Africa, and the Dominican Republic), short of the majority required by the Covenant.

Statute of Westminster 1931

Statute of Westminster1931 Statute of WestminsterStatute of Westminster Act
Its independence from the United Kingdom was confirmed in the Balfour Declaration 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931.
The whole Statute applied to Canada, the Irish Free State, and the Union of South Africa without the need for any acts of ratification; the governments of those countries gave their consent to the application of the law to their respective jurisdiction.

Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa

Supreme Court of AppealAppellate DivisionAppeal Court
Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria (Transvaal), Parliament would be in Cape Town (Cape Province), the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein (Orange Free State).
On the creation of the Union of South Africa from four British colonies in 1910, the supreme courts of the colonies became provincial divisions of the new Supreme Court of South Africa, and the Appellate Division was created as a purely appellate court superior to the provincial divisions.

1960 South African republic referendum

referendum1960 referenduma referendum
Most English-speaking South Africans were opposed to the creation of a republic, many of them voting "no" in the 5 October 1960 referendum.
The National Party government subsequently organised the referendum on whether the then Union of South Africa should become a republic.

South Africa Act 1909

South Africa ActSouth Africa Act, 1909Act of Union of 1910
Subsequently, the National Party government had passed a Constitution that repealed the South Africa Act.
The South Africa Act 1909 was an Act of the British Parliament which created the Union of South Africa from the British colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal.

British diaspora in Africa

British diasporaBritishAnglo-African
Louis Botha, formerly a Boer general, was appointed first Prime Minister of the Union, heading a coalition representing the white Afrikaner and English-speaking British diaspora communities.
In 1910 four separate British colonies in Southern Africa united to form the Union of South Africa, which was governed as a constitutional monarchy within the British Empire under white minority rule.

Cape Qualified Franchise

Cape franchisemulti-racial franchisenon-racial system of voting
First it entrenched the liberal (by South African standards) Cape Qualified Franchise system of the Cape Colony which operated free of any racial considerations (although due to socio-economic restrictions no real political expression of non-whites was possible).
The Cape Qualified Franchise was the system of non-racial franchise that was adhered to in the Cape Colony, and in the Cape Province in the early years of the Union of South Africa.

National Party (South Africa)

National PartyNPNationalist
Unlike the Afrikaans-speaking National Party, which had held anti-British sentiments, and was opposed to South Africa's intervention in the Second World War.
The National Party was founded in Bloemfontein in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists soon after the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

Apartheid

apartheid South Africaapartheid in South Africaanti-apartheid
The decision together with the South African Government's insistence on adhering to its policy of apartheid resulted in South Africa's de facto expulsion from the Commonwealth of Nations.
In 1910 the Union of South Africa was created as a self-governing dominion, which continued the legislative programme: the South Africa Act (1910) enfranchised whites, giving them complete political control over all other racial groups while removing the right of blacks to sit in parliament, the Native Land Act (1913) prevented blacks, except those in the Cape, from buying land outside "reserves", the Natives in Urban Areas Bill (1918) was designed to force blacks into "locations", the Urban Areas Act (1923) introduced residential segregation and provided cheap labour for industry led by white people, the Colour Bar Act (1926) prevented black mine workers from practising skilled trades, the Native Administration Act (1927) made the British Crown, rather than paramount chiefs, the supreme head over all African affairs, the Native Land and Trust Act (1936) complemented the 1913 Native Land Act and, in the same year, the Representation of Natives Act removed previous black voters from the Cape voters' roll and allowed them to elect three whites to Parliament.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
Like Canada and Australia, the Union of South Africa was a self-governing autonomous dominion of the British Empire.
The Dominions themselves also acquired mandates of their own: the Union of South Africa gained South West Africa (modern-day Namibia), Australia gained New Guinea, and New Zealand Western Samoa.

Transvaal Colony

TransvaalWestern TransvaalColony of Transvaal
It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony.
The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.