United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUKBritainIrelandGreat BritainGreat Britain and IrelandGBRIrishEngland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.wikipedia
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Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with France
The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919)

International relations (1814–1919)Great Powersinternational events
The Crimean War with Russia was a relatively small operation in a century where Britain was largely at peace with the Great Powers.
Italy was added to this group after its unification and on the eve of the First World War there were two major blocs in Europe: the Triple Entente formed by France, Britain and Russia and the Triple Alliance formed by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary.

Acts of Union 1800

Act of UnionAct of Union 1800Union
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Great Famine (Ireland)

Great FamineIrish Potato FamineGreat Irish Famine
The Great Irish Famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the mid-19th century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland and increased calls for Irish land reform.
The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Irish Home Rule movement

Irish Home RuleHome RuleHome Rule Bill
Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922.
The Irish Home Rule movement was a movement that campaigned for self-government (or "home rule") for Ireland within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Irish War of Independence

War of IndependenceAnglo-Irish WarIrish War for Independence
Growing desire for Irish self-governance led to the Irish War of Independence, which resulted in most of Ireland seceding from the Union and forming the Irish Free State in 1922.
The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and British forces: the British Army, along with the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) and its paramilitary forces the Auxiliaries and Ulster Special Constabulary (USC).

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
However, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his government's attempts to introduce it.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was king of Great Britain and king of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

Catholic emancipation

emancipationCatholic Emancipation ActAct of Emancipation
The Irish had been led to believe by the British that their loss of legislative independence would be compensated with Catholic emancipation, that is, by the removal of civil disabilities placed upon Roman Catholics in both Great Britain and Ireland.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, and later the combined United Kingdom in the late 18th century and early 19th century, that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Duke of WellingtonWellingtonArthur Wellesley
The Duke of Wellington gradually pushed the French out of Spain, and in early 1814, as Napoleon was being driven back in the east by the Prussians, Austrians and Russians, Wellington invaded southern France. Prime ministers of the period included: William Pitt the Younger, Lord Grenville, Duke of Portland, Spencer Perceval, Lord Liverpool, George Canning, Lord Goderich, Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, Lord Melbourne, Lord Palmerston and Sir Robert Peel.
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.

Continental System

Continental BlockadeNapoleonic blockade anti-British policies
In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System.
]]The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.

Northern Ireland

Northern IrishIrishNIR
Northern Ireland remained part of the Union, and the state was renamed to the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927.
The new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London.

Presidencies and provinces of British India

British IndiaIndiaBritish
British India, by far the most important overseas possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857.
Henceforth known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, and India was officially known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.

Kingdom of Ireland

IrelandIrishCrown
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
It established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain.

Battle of Waterloo

WaterlooThe Battle of Waterloobattle
The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blücher defeated Napoleon once and for all at Waterloo.
Four days later, the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon.

Hanover

HannoverHanover, GermanyHannover, Germany
The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, and Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy which was in a personal union with the United Kingdom.
Its Electors later become monarchs of Great Britain (and from 1801 of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland).

Robert Peel

Sir Robert PeelPeelSir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet
Sir Robert Peel was alarmed at the strength of the Catholic Association, warning in 1824, "We cannot tamely sit by while the danger is hourly increasing, while a power co-ordinate with that of the Government is rising by its side, nay, daily counteracting its views." Prime ministers of the period included: William Pitt the Younger, Lord Grenville, Duke of Portland, Spencer Perceval, Lord Liverpool, George Canning, Lord Goderich, Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, Lord Melbourne, Lord Palmerston and Sir Robert Peel.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 1788 – 2 July 1850) was a British Conservative statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).

Daniel O'Connell

Daniel O’ConnellO'Connellmonster meetings
An even more decisive blow was the unexpected repeal of the many restrictions on Catholics, after widespread organised protest by the Catholic Association in Ireland under Daniel O'Connell, with support from Catholics in England.
He campaigned for Catholic emancipation—including the right for Catholics to sit in the Westminster Parliament, denied for over 100 years—and repeal of the Acts of Union which combined Great Britain and Ireland.

Six Acts

1819 Blasphemous and Seditious Libels ActCriminal Libel Act 1819Newspaper and Stamp Duties Act
In reaction Liverpool's government passed the "Six Acts" in 1819.
Following the Peterloo Massacre on 16 August 1819, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland government acted to prevent any future disturbances by the introduction of new legislation, the so-called Six Acts aimed at suppressing any meetings for the purpose of radical reform.

Corn Laws

Corn Lawrepeal of the Corn LawsImportation Act 1815
This opened the way for another decade of reform that culminated in the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846—ending the tariff on imported grain that kept prices high for the landed aristocracy.
The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1846.

Anti-Corn Law League

Anti-Cornlaw Leagueanti corn law campaignerAnti-Corn-Law League
Repeal was heavily promoted by the Anti-Corn Law League, grass roots activists led by Richard Cobden and based in the industrial cities; they demanded cheap food.
The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

Richard Cobden

CobdenRichard Cob denRichard Cobden MP
Repeal was heavily promoted by the Anti-Corn Law League, grass roots activists led by Richard Cobden and based in the industrial cities; they demanded cheap food.
Another free trade initiative was the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty of 1860, promoting closer interdependence between Britain and France.

Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey

Earl GreyLord GreyCharles Grey
Earl Grey, prime minister from 1830 to 1834, and his rejuvenated Whig Party enacted a series of major reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted and, most important, the Reform Act 1832 refashioned the British electoral system. Prime ministers of the period included: William Pitt the Younger, Lord Grenville, Duke of Portland, Spencer Perceval, Lord Liverpool, George Canning, Lord Goderich, Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, Lord Melbourne, Lord Palmerston and Sir Robert Peel.
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, (13 March 1764 – 17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from November 1830 to July 1834.

F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich

Lord GoderichThe Viscount GoderichFrederick John Robinson
Prime ministers of the period included: William Pitt the Younger, Lord Grenville, Duke of Portland, Spencer Perceval, Lord Liverpool, George Canning, Lord Goderich, Duke of Wellington, Lord Grey, Lord Melbourne, Lord Palmerston and Sir Robert Peel.
He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom between August 1827 and January 1828.

Personal union

personalUnionunited
The peace settlement was in effect only a ceasefire, and Napoleon continued to provoke the British by attempting a trade embargo on the country and by occupying the city of Hanover, capital of the Electorate, a German-speaking duchy which was in a personal union with the United Kingdom.