A report on United Nations

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

- United Nations

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Overall

A hearing of the International Mixed Court at Shanghai, c. 1905

Extraterritoriality

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State of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.

State of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations.

A hearing of the International Mixed Court at Shanghai, c. 1905

Extraterritoriality can also be applied to physical places, such as foreign embassies, military bases of foreign countries, or offices of the United Nations.

UNICEF

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Flag of UNICEF
UNICEF-care tent in Sudan
UNICEF School in a box contains basic educational items for one teacher and 40 students
Lionel Messi wearing a Barcelona shirt with the UNICEF logo in 2007

UNICEF, in full originally called the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, now officially United Nations Children's Fund, is an agency of the United Nations responsible for providing humanitarian and developmental aid to children worldwide.

San Francisco

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Commercial and cultural center in the northern region of the U.S. state of California.

Commercial and cultural center in the northern region of the U.S. state of California.

Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores)
Port of San Francisco in 1851
Juana Briones de Miranda, considered the "Founding Mother of San Francisco"
City seal from before the Consolidation Act of 1856. The phoenix references the early fires that burn early San Francisco. Significant fires occurred December 1849, May 1850, June 1850, September 1850, May 1851, and June 1851.
The Palace of Fine Arts at the 1915 Panama–Pacific Exposition
The Bay Bridge, shown here under construction in 1935, took forty months to complete.
The Transamerica Pyramid was the tallest building in San Francisco until 2016, when Salesforce Tower surpassed it.
The San Francisco Peninsula
San Francisco Chinatown is the oldest in North America and one of the largest Chinese enclaves outside of Asia.
The Ferry Building along the Embarcadero
Fog is a regular feature of San Francisco summers.
Race and ethnic/ancestral origins of San Franciscans, 2019
Map of racial distribution in San Francisco Bay Area, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people:
A tent city in San Francisco in May 2020
California Street in the Financial District
Ships docked at Pier 3, with Financial District skyscrapers in the background
Lombard Street is a popular tourist destination in San Francisco, known for its "crookedness".
Boutiques along Fillmore Street in Pacific Heights
High-rises surround Yerba Buena Gardens, South of Market.
The rainbow flag, symbol of LGBT pride, originated in San Francisco; banners like this one decorate streets in the Castro.
The lobby of the War Memorial Opera House, one of the last buildings erected in Beaux Arts style in the United States
Oracle Park opened in 2000.
The Olympic Club
Ocean Beach, San Francisco, with a view of the Cliff House
Alamo Square is one of the most well-known parks in the area, and is often a symbol of San Francisco for its popular location for film and pop culture.
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco State University Main Quad
The Lone Mountain Campus of the University of San Francisco
San Francisco Chronicle Building
A cable car ascending Hyde St, with Alcatraz on the bay behind
The Golden Gate Ferry M/V Del Norte docked at the Ferry Building
The Bay Bridge offers the only direct automobile connection to the East Bay.
San Francisco International Airport is the primary airport of San Francisco and the Bay Area.
A bike lane in San Francisco.

It then became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945.

United Nations Office at Vienna

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"Persian Scholars Pavilion" at UNOV, donated by Iran

The United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) is one of the four major office sites of the United Nations where numerous different UN agencies have a joint presence.

World Food Programme

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Executive Director David Beasley meets women and men restoring degraded land in Burkina Faso. Photo: WFP/George Fominyen
Supplies are unloaded from an UNHAS helicopter for flood victims in Goonda province. Mozambique. Photo: WFP/Marco Frattini
WFP took pre-emptive action to reduce the impact of floods in Bangladesh. Photo: WFP/Sayed Asif Mahmud
A child holds a WFP supplementary, specialized food to treat malnutrition among children, at a WFP-supported nutrition clinic in Yemen. Photo: WFP/Issa-Al-Raghi.
A child eats a WFP school meal in Lao. Photo: WFP/Vilakhone Sipaseuth
A beneficiary shows the humanitarian assistance card she used to receive money at a WFP cash transfer point in Niger. Photo: WFP/Simon Pierre Diouf

The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations.

The Allied leaders of the European theatre: Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meeting at the Tehran Conference in 1943

Four Policemen

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Postwar council with the Big Four that US President Franklin Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.

Postwar council with the Big Four that US President Franklin Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.

The Allied leaders of the European theatre: Joseph Stalin, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meeting at the Tehran Conference in 1943
Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill meet at the Cairo Conference in 1943 during World War II.
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches. The branch on the right represents the Four Policemen.

When the United Nations was officially established later in 1945, France was in due course added as the fifth permanent member of the Security Council because of the insistence of Churchill.

Japan

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Island country in East Asia.

Island country in East Asia.

Legendary Emperor Jimmu (神武天皇)
Samurai warriors battling Mongols during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the
Emperor Meiji (明治天皇); 1852–1912
Japan's imperial ambitions ended on September 2, 1945, with the country's surrender to the Allies.
The Japanese archipelago
Mount Fuji in Spring, view from Arakurayama Sengen Park
Autumn maple leaves at Kongōbu-ji on Mount Kōya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The National Diet Building
Japan is a member of both the G7 and the G20.
JMSDF class destroyer
The Tokyo Stock Exchange
A rice paddy in Aizu, Fukushima Prefecture
A plug-in hybrid car manufactured by Toyota. Japan is the third-largest maker of motor vehicles in the world.
The Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) at the International Space Station
Japan Airlines, the flag carrier of Japan
The Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant
The Greater Tokyo Area is ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world.
The torii of Itsukushima Shinto Shrine near Hiroshima
Kanji and hiragana signs
Students celebrating after the announcement of the results of the entrance examinations to the University of Tokyo
12th-century illustrated handscroll of The Tale of Genji, a National Treasure
Noh performance at a Shinto shrine
Young ladies celebrate Coming of Age Day (成人の日) in Harajuku, Tokyo
A plate of nigiri-zushi
Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony
Japanese samurai boarding a Mongol vessel during the Mongol invasions of Japan, depicted in the, 1293
Skyscrapers in Nakanoshima, Osaka; a major financial centre in Japan

Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), OECD, G20 and Group of Seven.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.

Sovereign state

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Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019
Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN (blue), as well as observer states (green), non-member states (orange), and non-self-governing territories (grey).

Currently, the international community includes more than 200 sovereign states, most of which are represented in the United Nations.

China

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Country in East Asia.

Country in East Asia.

China (today's Guangdong), Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a marble bridge) are all shown as separate regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius
10,000 years old pottery, Xianren Cave culture (18000–7000 BCE)
Yinxu, the ruins of the capital of the late Shang dynasty (14th century BCE)
China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, is famed for having united the Warring States' walls to form the Great Wall of China. Most of the present structure, however, dates to the Ming dynasty.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent
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The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China to defeat the anti-foreign Boxers and their Qing backers. The image shows a celebration ceremony inside the Chinese imperial palace, the Forbidden City after the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901.
Sun Yat-sen, the founding father of Republic of China, one of the first republics in Asia.
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong toasting together in 1945 following the end of World War II
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the PRC in 1949.
The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests was ended by a military-led massacre which brought condemnations and sanctions against the Chinese government from various foreign countries.
Satellite image of China from NASA WorldWind
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for mainland China.
A giant panda, China's most famous endangered and endemic species, at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding in Sichuan
The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world.
Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE
Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world's largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world.
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, one of the first Chinese spaceports
Internet penetration rates in China in the context of East Asia and Southeast Asia, 1995–2012
The Duge Bridge is the highest bridge in the world.
The Beijing Daxing International Airport features the world's largest single-building airport terminal.
The Port of Shanghai's deep water harbor on Yangshan Island in the Hangzhou Bay is the world's busiest container port since 2010.
A 2009 population density map of the People's Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.
Ethnolinguistic map of China
A trilingual sign in Sibsongbanna, with Tai Lü language on the top
Map of the ten largest cities in China (2010)
Beijing's Peking University, one of the top-ranked universities in China
Chart showing the rise of China's Human Development Index from 1970 to 2010
Geographic distribution of religions in China.  
 Chinese folk religion (including Confucianism, Taoism, and groups of Chinese Buddhism)
 Buddhism tout court
 Islam
 Ethnic minorities' indigenous religions
 Mongolian folk religion
 Northeast China folk religion influenced by Tungus and Manchu shamanism; widespread Shanrendao
Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles.
A Moon gate in a Chinese garden.
The stories in Journey to the West are common themes in Peking opera.
Map showing major regional cuisines of China
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago.
Long March 2F launching Shenzhou spacecraft. China is one of the only three countries with independent human spaceflight capability.
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent and Tang's protectorates
Lihaozhai High School in Jianshui, Yunnan. The sign is in Hani (Latin alphabet), Nisu (Yi script), and Chinese.
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
China topographic map with East Asia countries

Both claim to be the sole legitimate government of China, although the United Nations has recognized the PRC as the sole representation since 1971.

Participants

Dumbarton Oaks Conference

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Participants
Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C., was the location of the conference.

The Dumbarton Oaks Conference or, more formally, the Washington Conversations on International Peace and Security Organization, was an international conference at which proposals for the establishment of a "general international organization", which was to become the United Nations, were formulated and negotiated.