United States

Cliff Palace in Colorado, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
The original Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775
Declaration of Independence, a painting by John Trumbull, depicts the Committee of Five presenting the draft of the Declaration to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776.
Territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917
The Battle of Gettysburg, fought between Union and Confederate forces on July 1–3, 1863 around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was the deadliest of all Civil War battles. With more than 51,000 casualties, it marked a turning point in the Union's ultimate victory in the war.
U.S. Marines raising the American flag on Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in one of the most iconic images of World War II
Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, August 1963.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev at the Geneva Summit, February 1985
The World Trade Center in New York City burning from the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda in 2001
Topographic map of the United States.
A map showing climate regions in the United States
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
Map of the United States showing the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the five major U.S. territories
The headquarters of the United Nations, of which the U.S. is a founding member, has been situated in Midtown Manhattan since 1952.
U.S. Government spending and revenue from 1792 to 2018
The Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C., is home to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Total incarceration in the United States by year (1920–2014)
A proportional representation of United States exports, 2019
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, July 1969
Wealth inequality in the U.S. increased between 1989 and 2013.
The Interstate Highway System in the contiguous United States, which extends 46876 mi
Most prominent religion by state according to a 2014 Pew Research study
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds
The University of Virginia, founded by Thomas Jefferson, is one of the many public colleges and universities in the United States. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend these types of institutions.
The Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, has become an iconic symbol of the American Dream.
Mark Twain, American author and humorist
Roast turkey, a traditional menu item of an American Thanksgiving dinner, November 2021
Grammy Museum at L.A. Live in Los Angeles, April 2009
The Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California, September 2015
The headquarters of the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) at Rockefeller Plaza in New York City
"the united states of America", April 6, 1776
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
Rock formations in the Grand Canyon, northern Arizona
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the United States since 1782.
The amount of US debt, measured as a percentage of GDP from 1790 to 2018
The nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73)
The New York City Police Department is the nation's largest municipal law enforcement agency.
The New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street in New York City
Percentage of respondents in the United States saying that religion is "very important" or "somewhat important" in their lives (2014)
The Texas Medical Center in downtown Houston is the largest medical complex in the world.

Country primarily located in North America.

- United States

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American Revolutionary War

Clockwise from left: Continental infantry at Redoubt 10, Yorktown; Washington rallying the broken center at Monmouth; USS Bonhomme Richard capturing HMS Serapis
Proclamation Line of 1763 (Green line) plus territorial cessions up to 1774
British North America, 1777
post-1763 concessions to Britain
from France (green) and Spain (yellow)
British troops leave Boston, prior to the Battle of Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775
British regulars and Provincial militia repulse an American attack on Quebec, December 1775
Sgt. Jasper raising the fort's flag,
Battle of Sullivan's Island, June 1776
An American company on line, Battle of Long Island, August 1776
British forced Hudson River narrows to isolate Fort Washington, November 1776
Iconic 1851 painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware
In September 1777, fearing a British Army attack on the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia, American patriots moved the Liberty Bell to this Allentown, Pennsylvania church, where the Liberty Bell was successfully hidden under the church's floor boards until the June 1778 British departure from Philadelphia. Today, inside the Zion United Church of Christ in Allentown, the Liberty Bell Museum commemorates the Liberty Bell's successful nine month hiding there.
Charles, comte de Vergennes
French Foreign Minister negotiated
Franco-American treaties Feb 1778
French Adm. d'Estaing's joint expedition with US Gen. Sullivan at Newport, Rhode Island Aug 1778
365x365px
General Washington commanding the Continental Army
Image of various Continental Army uniforms
Sir Thomas Gage, British Commander, 1763–1775
Sir William Howe, British Commander, 1775–1778
Sir Henry Clinton, British Commander, 1778–1782
Hessian troops surrender after Battle of Trenton, December 1776
Loyalist militia routed by Patriot militia at Kings Mountain withdrew into South Carolina. Victory raised American morale.
Nancy Morgan Hart single-handedly captured six Loyalist soldiers who had barged into her home to ransack it.
1975 Stamp commemorating Salem Poor, Black Patriot cited for bravery at Bunker Hill
Copy of smock issued to Black Loyalists in 1776
Continental soldiers, one from the 1st Rhode Island Regiment, left
Col. Joseph Brant, GB led Iroquois Mohawk in war
Col. Joseph Cook, US Iroquois Oneida in war
Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West portrays the American mission of (left–right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, William Temple Franklin, secretary (in red), and Henry Laurens
Military Governors and Staff Officers in British North America and West Indies 1778 and 1784
Washington enters New York City at British evacuation, November 1783
Revolution headstones for Saratoga, mass graves
U.S. motto Novus Ordo Seclorum, "A New Age Now Begins"
alt=Scene from the Second Virginia Convention, Patrick Henry giving his speech, "Give me liberty or give me death!"|Patrick Henry, 2nd Virginia Convention "Give me liberty or give me death!"
upright=.3|alt=Scene from the First Continental Congress, George Washington appointed as Commander-in-Chief for the new Continental Army besieging Boston.|July 1775, Independence Hall, Philadelphia
alt= Sail warships at sea with full sail; in the center middle ground, the US ship; in the background, four French warships in a haze giving it a cannon salute with gunpowder; small boats also in the water in the middle ground.|USS Ranger, Capt. Jones. France gives the US flag its first foreign salute
alt= A sail warship at sea flying a US flag.|USS Alliance, Capt. Barry won the last engagement
alt=1763 Proclamation Line of 1763 by George III to limit colonial western settlement. The Province of Quebec lies north of the Ohio River, west of Lake Erie and the west boundary of Pennsylvania. The Indian Reserve lies west of modern Roanoke Virginia, generally following the Eastern Continental Divide.|The 1763 Royal Proclamation set the western boundary for the 13 Colonies
alt="1768 Boundary Line Treaty Map" for Iroquois Six Nations and tributary tribes north of Fort Stanwix and the Ohio River; and for Cherokee and Creeks south of the Ohio River and west of modern Roanoke, Virginia, the purple line 1768 "Treaty of Hard Labor", is west of the Eastern Continental Divide, the green line for the previous 1763 "King's Proclamation".|The 1768 Indian treaties: Iroquois west of the red line, Cherokees west of the purple
150th anniversary of American independence. Issue of 1926
150th anniversary of Saratoga
150th anniversary
150th anniversary of Yorktown

The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, secured a United States of America independent from Great Britain.

Thirteen Colonies

The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies, the Thirteen American Colonies, or later as the United Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America.

The Thirteen Colonies (shown in red) in 1775, with modern borders overlaid
Thirteen Colonies of North America: Dark Red = New England colonies. Bright Red = Middle Atlantic colonies. Red-brown = Southern colonies.
1584 map of the east coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Cape Lookout, drawn by the English colonial governor, explorer, artist, and cartographer John White. Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement, was established here in 1607.
The 1606 grants by James I to the London and Plymouth companies. The overlapping area (yellow) was granted to both companies on the stipulation that neither found a settlement within 100 mi of each other. The location of early settlements is shown. J: Jamestown; Q: Quebec; Po: Popham; R: Port Royal; SA: St. Augustine.
New Netherland: 17th-century Dutch claims in areas that later became English colonies are shown in red and yellow. (Present U.S. states in gray.) The English colonies of New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), Pennsylvania (PA) and Delaware (DE) are referred to as the 'middle colonies'.
Territorial changes following the French and Indian War; land held by the British before 1763 is shown in red, land gained by Britain in 1763 is shown in pink
Join, or Die. by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule.
Map of the Thirteen Colonies (red) and nearby colonial areas (1763–1775) just before the Revolutionary War
Map of higher education in the 13 Colonies immediately prior to the American Revolution.

Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, they began fighting the American Revolutionary War in April 1775 and formed the United States of America by declaring full independence in July 1776.

Territorial evolution of the United States

Animated map of the territorial evolution of the United States ([[:File:United States evolution.gif|click to view full size image]])
US Census Bureau map depicting territorial acquisitions and dates of statehood, probably created in the 1970s
US Census Bureau map depicting territorial acquisitions, 2007
After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under control of the United States.
An example of a banco, created when a meander is cut off by a new, shorter channel, leaving a cut-off section of land surrounded by a U-shaped (oxbow) lake.

The United States of America was created on July 4, 1776, with the Declaration of Independence of thirteen British colonies in North America.

Slavery in the United States

An animation showing when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
Slave auction block, Green Hill Plantation, Campbell County, Virginia, Historic American Buildings Survey
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia
Slaves on a South Carolina plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790)
Ledger of sale of 118 slaves, Charleston, South Carolina, c. 1754
Prince Estabrook memorial in front of Buckman Tavern on Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts. Prince Estabrook, who was wounded in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, was the first black casualty of the Revolutionary War.
Continental soldiers at Yorktown. On the left, an African American soldier of the 1st Rhode Island Regiment.
This postage stamp, which was created at the time of the Bicentennial, honors Salem Poor, who was an enslaved African-American man who purchased his freedom, became a soldier, and rose to fame as a war hero during the Battle of Bunker Hill.
Advertisement in The Pennsylvania Gazette, May 24, 1796, seeking the return of Oney Judge, a fugitive slave who had escaped from the household of George Washington.
Confederate $100 bill, 1862–63, showing happy slaves farming. John C. Calhoun is at left, Columbia at right.
This portrait of Judge Samuel Sewall by John Smibert is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Massachusetts.
Establishing the Northwest Territory as free soil – no slavery – by Manasseh Cutler and Rufus Putnam proved to be crucial to the outcome of the Civil War.
Statue of abolitionist and crusading minister Theodore Parker in front of the Theodore Parker Church in West Roxbury, Massachusetts.
Statue of prominent abolitionist Frederick Douglass in the Highland Park Bowl in Rochester, New York. Douglass was a great admirer of Theodore Parker.
Benjamin Kent, Old Burying Ground, Halifax, Nova Scotia
Simon Legree and Uncle Tom: a scene from Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), an influential abolitionist novel
Henry Clay (1777–1852), one of three founders of the American Colonization Society, which assisted free blacks in moving to Africa. Liberia was a result.
Movement of slaves between 1790 and 1860
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia. Painting by Eyre Crowe
Ashley's Sack is a cloth that recounts a slave sale separating a mother and her daughter. The sack belonged to a nine-year-old girl Ashley and was a parting gift from her mother, Rose, after Ashley had been sold. Rose filled the sack with a dress, braid of her hair, pecans, and "my love always"
Slave trader's business in Atlanta, Georgia, 1864
Peter or Gordon, a whipped slave, photo taken at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1863; the guilty overseer was fired.
Wilson Chinn, a branded slave from Louisiana--Also exhibiting instruments of torture used to punish slaves
Slave sale, Charleston, 1856
U.S. brig Perry confronting the slave ship Martha off Ambriz on June 6, 1850
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting "The Lord is My Shepherd"
Illustration from History of American conspiracies – a record of treason, insurrection, rebellion and c., in the United States of America, from 1760 to 1860 (1863)
James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes. ca. 1862/63
Slaves for sale, a scene in New Orleans, 1861
Mixed-race slave girls of predominant European ancestry, New Orleans, 1863 (see also white slave propaganda).
A slave auction, 1853
Five-dollar banknote showing a plantation scene with enslaved people in South Carolina. Issued by the Planters Bank, Winnsboro, 1853. On display at the British Museum in London.
Eastman Johnson (American, 1824–1906). A Ride for Liberty – The Fugitive Slaves (recto), ca. 1862. Oil on paperboard. Brooklyn Museum
Uncle Marian, a slave of great notoriety, of North Carolina. Daguerreotype of elderly North Carolina slave, circa 1850.
Slaves on J. J. Smith's cotton plantation near Beaufort, South Carolina, photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan standing before their quarters in 1862
Escaped slaves, ca. 1862, at the headquarters of General Lafayette
Four generations of a slave family, Smith's Plantation, Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862
Abraham Lincoln presents the first draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet. Painted by Francis Bicknell Carpenter in 1864
An industrial school set up for ex-slaves in Richmond during Reconstruction
Many Native Americans were enslaved during the California Genocide by American settlers.
Percentage of slaves in each county of the slave states in 1860
Evolution of the enslaved population of the United States as a percentage of the population of each state, 1790–1860

The legal institution of human chattel slavery, comprising the enslavement primarily of Africans and African Americans, was prevalent in the United States of America from its founding in 1776 until 1865.

American Civil War

Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, aroused public opinion about the evils of slavery. According to legend, when Lincoln was introduced to her at the White House, his first words were, "So this is the little lady who started this Great War."
Frederick Douglass, a former slave, was a leading abolitionist
Marais des Cygnes massacre of anti-slavery Kansans, May 19, 1858
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 1860
The first published imprint of secession, a broadside issued by the Charleston Mercury, December 20, 1860
Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America (1861–1865)
Bombardment of the Fort by the Confederates
Rioters attacking a building during the New York anti-draft riots of 1863
Clashes on the rivers were melees of ironclads, cottonclads, gunboats and rams, complicated by naval mines and fire rafts.
Battle between the USS Monitor and USS Merrimack (1855)
General Scott's "Anaconda Plan" 1861. Tightening naval blockade, forcing rebels out of Missouri along the Mississippi River, Kentucky Unionists sit on the fence, idled cotton industry illustrated in Georgia.
Gunline of nine Union ironclads. South Atlantic Blockading Squadron off Charleston. Continuous blockade of all major ports was sustained by North's overwhelming war production.
A December 1861 cartoon in Punch magazine in London ridicules American aggressiveness in the Trent Affair. John Bull, at right, warns Uncle Sam, "You do what's right, my son, or I'll blow you out of the water."
County map of Civil War battles by theater and year
Robert E. Lee
"Stonewall" Jackson got his nickname at Bull Run.
George B. McClellan
The Battle of Antietam, the Civil War's deadliest one-day fight.
Confederate dead overrun at Marye's Heights, reoccupied next day May 4, 1863
Pickett's Charge
Ulysses S. Grant
Albert Sidney Johnston died at Shiloh
By 1863, the Union controlled large portions of the Western Theater, especially areas surrounding the Mississippi River
The Battle of Chickamauga, the highest two-day losses
Nathaniel Lyon secured St. Louis docks and arsenal, led Union forces to expel Missouri Confederate forces and government.
New Orleans captured
William Tecumseh Sherman
These dead soldiers—from Ewell's May 1864 attack at Spotsylvania—delayed Grant's advance on Richmond in the Overland Campaign.
Philip Sheridan
Map of Confederate territory losses year by year
Burying Union dead on the Antietam battlefield, 1862
Through the supervision of the Freedmen's Bureau, northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Beginning in 1961 the U.S. Post Office released commemorative stamps for five famous battles, each issued on the 100th anniversary of the respective battle.
The Battle of Fort Sumter, as depicted by Currier and Ives.

The American Civil War (April 12, 1861 – May 9, 1865; also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States between the Union (states that remained loyal to the federal union, or "the North") and the Confederacy (states that voted to secede, or "the South").

Civil rights movement

The 1963 March on Washington participants and leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial
The mob-style lynching of Will James, Cairo, Illinois, 1909
Lynching victim Will Brown, who was mutilated and burned during the Omaha, Nebraska race riot of 1919. Postcards and photographs of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.
KKK night rally near Chicago, in the 1920s
Colored Sailors room in World War I
A white gang looking for blacks during the Chicago race riot of 1919
White tenants seeking to prevent blacks from moving into the housing project erected this sign, Detroit, 1942.
In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
School integration, Barnard School, Washington, D.C., 1955
Emmett Till’s mother Mamie (middle) at her son's funeral in 1955. He was killed by white men after a white woman accused him of offending her in her family's grocery store.
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after being arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus to a white person
White parents rally against integrating Little Rock's schools
Student sit-in at Woolworth in Durham, North Carolina on February 10, 1960
A mob beats Freedom Riders in Birmingham. This picture was reclaimed by the FBI from a local journalist who also was beaten and whose camera was smashed.
James Meredith walking to class accompanied by a U.S. Marshal and a Justice Department official
U.S. Army trucks loaded with Federal law enforcement personnel on the University of Mississippi campus 1962
Recreation of Martin Luther King Jr.'s cell in Birmingham Jail at the National Civil Rights Museum
Wreckage at the Gaston Motel following the bomb explosion on May 11, 1963
Congress of Racial Equality march in Washington D.C. on September 22, 1963, in memory of the children killed in the Birmingham bombings
Alabama governor George Wallace tried to block desegregation at the University of Alabama and is confronted by U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach in 1963.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom at the National Mall
Leaders of the March on Washington posing before the Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963
Bayard Rustin (left) and Cleveland Robinson (right), organizers of the March, on August 7, 1963
Martin Luther King Jr. at a civil rights march on Washington, D.C.
Malcolm X meets with Martin Luther King Jr., March 26, 1964
"We Cater to White Trade Only" sign on a restaurant window in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1938. In 1964, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and spent a night in jail for attempting to eat at a white-only restaurant in St. Augustine, Florida.
White segregationists (foreground) trying to prevent black people from swimming at a "White only" beach in St. Augustine during the 1964 Monson Motor Lodge protests
Missing persons poster created by the FBI in 1964 shows the photographs of Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, and Michael Schwerner
Lyndon B. Johnson signs the historic Civil Rights Act of 1964
President Lyndon B. Johnson (center) meets with civil rights leaders Martin Luther King Jr., Whitney Young, and James Farmer, January 1964
Police attack non-violent marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first day of the Selma to Montgomery marches.
Police arrest a man during the Watts riots in Los Angeles, August 1965
A 3,000-person shantytown called Resurrection City was established in 1968 on the National Mall as part of the Poor People's Campaign.
Mississippi State Penitentiary
Fannie Lou Hamer of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (and other Mississippi-based organizations) is an example of local grassroots leadership in the movement.
Armed Lumbee Indians aggressively confronting Klansmen in the Battle of Hayes Pond
Jewish civil rights activist Joseph L. Rauh Jr. marching with Martin Luther King Jr. in 1963
Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race at the 1968 Summer Olympics; both wear Olympic Project for Human Rights badges. Peter Norman (silver medalist, left) from Australia also wears an OPHR badge in solidarity with Smith and Carlos.
Mural of Malcolm X in Belfast
Ku Klux Klan demonstration in St. Augustine, Florida in 1964
Attorney General Robert Kennedy speaking before a hostile Civil Rights crowd protesting low minority hiring in his Justice Department June 14, 1963

The civil rights movement was a political movement and campaign from 1954 to 1968 in the United States to abolish institutional racial segregation, discrimination, and disenfranchisement throughout the United States.

Racism in the United States

Racial disparities in the share of prisoners, police officers, people shot by police, and judges in the United States in the late 2010s
Scars of an enslaved man, Peter, April 2, 1863, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
A group of white men pose for a 1919 photograph as they stand over the body of the black lynching victim Will Brown before they decide to mutilate and burn it during the Omaha race riot of 1919 in Omaha, Nebraska. Photographs and postcards of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.
White tenants seeking to prevent blacks from moving into the housing project erected this sign. Detroit, 1942.
Due to threats and violence against her, U.S. Marshals escorted 6-year-old Ruby Bridges to and from the previously whites only William Frantz Elementary School in New Orleans, 1960. As soon as Bridges entered the school, white parents pulled their children out.
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after being arrested for not giving up her seat on the bus to a white person
Bayard Rustin (left) and Cleveland Robinson (right), organizers of the March, on August 7, 1963
The Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church where nine black church-goers, including the pastor, were killed by a white man in the 2015 Charleston church shooting. The church, founded in 1817, is the oldest AME church in the South.
Reverend Al Sharpton speaking at the Commitment March: Get Your Knee Off Our Necks in August 2020
Members of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877.
The Rescue sculpture stood outside the U.S. Capitol building between 1853 and 1958. A work commissioned by the U.S. government, its sculptor Horatio Greenough wrote that it was "to convey the idea of the triumph of the whites over the savage tribes".
Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the Wounded Knee massacre. Eyewitness American Horse, chief of the Oglala Lakota, stated, "A people's dream died there. It was a beautiful dream ... the nation's hope is broken and scattered. There is no center any longer, and the sacred tree is dead."
Richard Henry Pratt founded the first Native American boarding school in 1879. The goal of these schools was to teach Native American students White ways of being through education which emphasized European cultural values and the superiority of White American ways of life.
A political cartoon from 1882 ridiculing the Chinese Exclusion Act, showing a Chinese man, surrounded by benefits of Chinese immigration, being barred entry to the "Golden Gate of Liberty", while other groups, including Communists and "hoodlums", are allowed to enter. The caption reads sarcastically, "We must draw the line somewhere, you know."
Chinese massacre of 1871
Denver's anti-Chinese riot in 1880
Bhagat Singh Thind was twice denied citizenship as he was not deemed white.
Philadelphia nativist riots.
New York Times, 1854 ad, reading "No Irish need apply."
Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928. The second era Klan was a large nationwide movement with between four and six million members.
Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti were wrongfully executed in 1927; anti-Italianism and anti-immigrant bias were suspected as having heavily influenced the verdict.
A rally is held for victims of Hurricane Maria in protest against the U.S. government's response to it and the Political status of Puerto Rico.
Hispanic protest against California immigration policy. Todos somos ilegales – We are all Illegals.
An Assyrian church after it was vandalized in Detroit (2007). Although they are not Arabs and are mostly Christians, Assyrians often face a racist backlash in the US because of their Middle Eastern background.
A man holding a sign that reads "deport all Iranians" and "get the hell out of my country" during a protest of the Iran hostage crisis in Washington, D.C. in 1979.
Protesters at the Unite the Right rally carrying Confederate flags, Gadsden flags, and a Nazi flag
This racist postcard from the 1900s shows the casual denigration of black women. It states "I know you're not particular to a fault / Though I'm not sure you'll never be sued for assault / You're so fond of women that even a wench / Attracts your gross fancy despite her strong stench"
In 1899 Uncle Sam balances his new possessions which are depicted as "savage" children. The figures are Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Cuba, Philippines and "Ladrone Is." (the Mariana Islands).

Racism in the United States comprises negative attitudes and views on race or ethnicity which are related to each other, are held by various people and groups in the United States, and have been reflected in discriminatory laws, practices and actions (including violence) at various times in the history of the United States against racial or ethnic groups.

List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

Map of the United States with names and borders of states
The order in which the original 13 states ratified the 1787 Constitution, then the order in which the others were admitted to the Union

A state of the United States is one of the 50 constituent entities that shares its sovereignty with the federal government.

Spanish–American War

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)
Cuban War of Independence
A Spanish satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896) criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba by Manuel Moliné. Upper text reads (in old Catalan): "Uncle Sam's craving", and below: "To keep the island so it won't get lost".
An American cartoon published in Judge, February 6, 1897: Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to the oppressed Cuba (the caption under the chained child reads "Spain's 16th Century methods") while Uncle Sam (representing the U.S. government) sits blindfolded, refusing to see the atrocities or use his guns to intervene (cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton).
Illustrated map published by the Guardia Civil showing the Kingdom of Spain and its remaining colonial possessions in 1895 (Caroline and Mariana Islands, as well as Spanish Sahara, Morocco, Guinea and Guam are not included.)
The American transport ship Seneca, a chartered vessel that carried troops to Puerto Rico and Cuba
Spanish Vessels captured up to evening of May 1, 1898
CHAP. 189. – An Act Declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain on April 25, 1898.
The last stand of the Spanish Garrison in Cuba by Murat Halstead, 1898
The Pacific theatre of the Spanish–American War
Spanish Marines trenched during the Battle of Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish artillery regiment during the Philippine Campaign
Group of Tagalog Filipino revolutionaries during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Spanish infantry troops and officers in Manila
The Spanish armored cruiser, which was destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3, 1898
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill
Mauser Model 1893 rifle, used by the Spanish infantry and superior to American rifles; the Springfield Model 1892-99 and the Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Because of this superiority the US Army developed the M1903 Springfield.
Charge of the Rough Riders
Receiving the news of the surrender of Santiago
The Santiago Campaign (1898)
Crewmen pose under the gun turrets of USS Iowa (BB-4) in 1898.
Spanish troops before they departed to engage the American forces at Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
A monument in Guánica, Puerto Rico, for the U.S. infantrymen who lost their lives in the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Oil on canvas painted and signed with initials A.A. by Antonio Antón and Antonio Iboleón, around 1897. It is an ideal view of the Spanish Squadron of Instruction in 1896, before the war of 1898, since the ships represented never sailed together. On the left the Battleship Pelayo with insignia, followed by the cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Infanta María Teresa and Alfonso XIII; on the right, the cruiser Carlos V with insignia, Almirante Oquendo and Vizcaya. On the starboard side of the Pelayo sails the torpedo boat Destructor; Two Furor-class destroyer boats sail along the bows of the Carlos V. Stormy sea and partly cloudy skies.
Cámara's squadron in the Suez Canal in July 1898. His flagship, the battleship Pelayo, can be seen in the foreground. The last ship of the line is the armored cruiser Carlos V. Finally this squad would not fight in the war.
Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to the United States, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of Spain
US Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer
Cross of Military Merit for Combat in Cuba

The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898) was a period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

World War I

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.
, a, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908
Traditionally thought to show the arrest of Gavrilo Princip (right), historians now believe this photo depicts an innocent bystander, Ferdinand Behr
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.
Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.
Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915
German soldiers on the way to the front in 1914; at this stage, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
French bayonet charge during the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.
World empires and colonies around 1914
The British Indian infantry divisions were withdrawn from France in December 1915, and sent to Mesopotamia.
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916
Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916
Dead German soldiers at Somme 1916
King George V (front left) and a group of officials inspect a British munitions factory in 1917.
Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917
U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice
Refugee transport from Serbia in Leibnitz, Styria, 1914
Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming aeroplane
Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign
Mehmed V greeting Wilhelm II on his arrival at Constantinople
Kaiser Wilhelm II inspecting Turkish troops of the 15th Corps in East Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland). Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Supreme Commander of the German Army on the Eastern Front, is second from the left.
Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish, 1914–1915
Isonzo Offensives 1915-1917
Austro-Hungarian trench at 3,850 metres in the Ortler Alps, one of the most challenging fronts of the war
Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărășești, 1917
Emperor Nicholas II and Commander-in-Chief Nikolai Nikolaevich in the captured Przemysl. The Russian Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the war.
"They shall not pass", a phrase typically associated with the defence of Verdun
President Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany, 2 April 1917
The Allied Avenue, 1917 painting by Childe Hassam, that depicts Manhattan's Fifth Avenue decorated with flags from Allied nations
French infantry advance on the Chemin des Dames, April 1917
Canadian Corps troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 and Ottoman artillerymen at Hareira in 1917 before the Southern Palestine offensive
British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.
Ottoman troops during the Mesopotamian campaign
French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division soldiers blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918
Between April and November 1918, the Allies increased their front-line rifle strength while German strength fell by half.
Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918
16th Bn (Canadian Scottish), advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918
An American major, piloting an observation balloon near the front, 1918
German Revolution, Kiel, 1918
Italian troops reach Trento during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage in Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June 1940 armistice.
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by Sir William Orpen
Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos signing the Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolution of Austria-Hungary after war
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World WarI (as of 1923)
Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918
Transporting Ottoman wounded at Sirkeci
Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone, Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918
Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I
A Russian armoured car, 1919
38-cm "Lange Max" of Koekelare (Leugenboom),the biggest gun in the world in 1917
A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, c. 1917–1918
British Vickers machine gun, 1917
The
Royal Air Force Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.
Luftstreitkräfte Fokker Dr.I being inspected by Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron.
Mobile radio station in German South West Africa, using a hydrogen balloon to lift the antenna
Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916
HMS Baralong
French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders
Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, written by Henry Morgenthau Sr. and published in 1918.
German prisoners in a French prison camp during the later part of the war
British prisoners guarded by Ottoman forces after the First Battle of Gaza in 1917
Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by the Young Women's Christian Association
Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps First Contingent in Bermuda, winter 1914–1915, before joining 1 Lincolnshire Regiment in France in June 1915. The dozen remaining after Guedecourt on 25 September 1916, merged with a Second Contingent. The two contingents suffered 75% casualties.
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
The Deserter, 1916: Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries
Possible execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917. The original French text accompanying this photograph notes, however, that the uniforms are those of 1914–15 and that the execution may be that of a spy at the beginning of the war.
Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky promised "Peace, Land and Bread" to the impoverished masses
Young men registering for conscription, New York City, 5 June 1917
Military recruitment in Melbourne, Australia, 1914
British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914
1917 political cartoon about the Zimmermann Telegram. The message was intercepted by the British; its publication caused outrage and contributed to the U.S. entry into World War I.
The Italian Redipuglia War Memorial, which contains the remains of 100,187 soldiers
A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department
Poster showing women workers, 1915
War memorial to soldiers of the 49th Bengalee Regiment (Bangali Platoon) in Kolkata, India, who died in the war.

Referred to by contemporaries as the "Great War", its belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, the United States, and the Ottoman Empire, with fighting also expanding into the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Asia.