United States Army Air Forces

USAAFArmy Air ForcesU.S. Army Air ForcesArmy Air ForceUS Army Air ForceU.S. Army Air ForceUnited States Army Air ForceUS Army Air ForcesArmy Air CorpsAir Force
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.wikipedia
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United States Army Air Corps

Army Air CorpsAir CorpsU.S. Army Air Corps
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) on 20 June 1941, giving it greater autonomy from the Army's middle-level command structure.

Army Ground Forces

Army Field ForcesContinental Army Command ("CONARC")Continental Army Command
The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the Army Air Forces.
The Army Ground Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Service Forces.

United States Air Force

Air ForceU.S. Air ForceUSAF
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. Two fighter pilot beneficiaries of this change went on to become brigadier generals in the United States Air Force, James Robinson Risner and Charles E. Yeager. Although other nations already had separate air forces independent of their army or navy (such as the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe), the AAF remained a part of the Army until a defense reorganization in the post-war period resulted in the passage by the United States Congress of the National Security Act of 1947 with the creation of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947.
In practice, the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) was virtually independent of the Army during World War II, and in virtually all ways functioned as an independent service branch, but airmen still pressed for formal independence.

Army Service Forces

Seventh Service Command7th Service CommandEighth Service Command
The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the Army Air Forces.
The Army Service Forces were one of the three autonomous components of the Army of the United States during World War II, the others being the Army Air Forces and Army Ground Forces.

Henry H. Arnold

Henry H. "Hap" ArnoldHenry ArnoldHenry "Hap" Arnold
The expected activation of Army General Headquarters prompted Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall to request a reorganization study from Chief of the Air Corps Maj. Gen. Henry H. Arnold resulting on 5 October 1940 in a proposal for creation of an air staff, unification of the air arm under one commander, and equality with the ground and supply forces.
Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps (1938–1941), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces, the only U.S. Air Force general to hold five-star rank, and the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U.S. military services.

Frank Maxwell Andrews

Frank M. AndrewsFrank AndrewsGeneral Andrews
Between March 1935 and September 1938, the commanders of GHQ Air Force and the Air Corps, Major Generals Frank M. Andrews and Oscar Westover respectively, clashed philosophically over the direction in which the air arm was moving, exacerbating the difficulties.
Lieutenant General Frank Maxwell Andrews (February 3, 1884 – May 3, 1943) was a senior officer of the United States Army and one of the founders of the United States Army Air Forces, which was later to become the United States Air Force.

Air Corps Tactical School

Air Service Tactical SchoolAir Service Field Officers SchoolAir Corps Tactical School "short course
The roots of the Army Air Forces arose in the formulation of theories of strategic bombing at the Air Corps Tactical School that gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force, beginning with those espoused by Brig.
The Air Corps Tactical School was notable as the birthplace of the Army Air Forces doctrine of daylight precision bombing.

Joseph T. McNarney

Gen. Joseph T. McNarneyGeneral Joseph T. McNarneyJoseph McNarney
Gen. Joseph T. McNarney, from an observer group in England and appointed him to chair a "War Department Reorganization Committee" within the War Plans Division, using Arnold's and Spaatz's plan as a blueprint.
Joseph Taggart McNarney (August 28, 1893 – February 1, 1972) was a United States Army Air Forces (and later Air Force) general officer who served as Military Governor of occupied Germany.

Strategic bombing

air raidair raidsterror bombing
The roots of the Army Air Forces arose in the formulation of theories of strategic bombing at the Air Corps Tactical School that gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force, beginning with those espoused by Brig.
German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels and other high-ranking officials of the Third Reich frequently described attacks made on Germany by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during their strategic bombing campaigns as Terrorangriffe - terror attacks.

United States Army

U.S. ArmyArmyUS Army
The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply (which in 1943 became the Army Service Forces), and the Army Air Forces.
Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947.

Air Materiel Command

Air Technical Service CommandAFLCAir Material Command
The logistical demands of this armada were met by the creation of the Air Service Command on 17 October 1941 to provide service units and maintain 250 depots in the United States; the elevation of the Materiel Division to full command status on 9 March 1942 to develop and procure aircraft, equipment, and parts; and the merger of these commands into the Air Technical Service Command on 31 August 1944.
Air Materiel Command (AMC) was a United States Army Air Forces and United States Air Force command.

Signal Corps (United States Army)

Signal CorpsU.S. Army Signal CorpsArmy Signal Corps
The Army Air Forces was created in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater autonomy in which to expand more efficiently, to provide a structure for the additional command echelons required by a vastly increased force, and to end an increasingly divisive administrative battle within the Army over control of aviation doctrine and organization that had been ongoing since the creation of an aviation section within the U.S. Army Signal Corps in 1914.
Its organized components served both the Army Ground Forces and the Army Air Forces.

Chuck Yeager

Charles "Chuck" YeagerCharles E. "Chuck" YeagerCharles E. Yeager
Two fighter pilot beneficiaries of this change went on to become brigadier generals in the United States Air Force, James Robinson Risner and Charles E. Yeager.
Yeager's career began in World War II as a private in the United States Army Air Forces.

Tuskegee Airmen

Tuskegee AirmanTuskeegee airman99th Fighter Squadron
Despite the handicap—caused by the segregation policy—of not having an experienced training cadre as with other AAF units, the Tuskegee Airmen distinguished themselves in combat with the 332nd Fighter Group.
They formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces.

National Security Act of 1947

National Security ActNational Security LawThe National Security Act of 1947
Although other nations already had separate air forces independent of their army or navy (such as the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe), the AAF remained a part of the Army until a defense reorganization in the post-war period resulted in the passage by the United States Congress of the National Security Act of 1947 with the creation of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947.
It also created the Department of the Air Force and the United States Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service.

332d Expeditionary Operations Group

332nd Fighter Group332d Fighter Group332 Aerospace Expeditionary Group
Despite the handicap—caused by the segregation policy—of not having an experienced training cadre as with other AAF units, the Tuskegee Airmen distinguished themselves in combat with the 332nd Fighter Group.
This title refers to all who trained in the Army Air Forces African-American pilot training program at Moton Field and Tuskegee Army Airfield, Alabama, between 1941 and 1945.

Winning Your Wings

Jimmy Stewart, a Hollywood movie star serving as an AAF pilot, used the terms "Air Corps" and "Air Forces" interchangeably in the narration of the 1942 recruiting short "Winning Your Wings".
Winning Your Wings is a 1942 Allied propaganda film of World War II produced by Warner Bros. Studios for the US Army Air Forces, starring James Stewart.

Continental Air Forces

The latter was formally organized as the Continental Air Forces and activated on 15 December 1944, although it did not formally take jurisdiction of its component air forces until the end of the war in Europe.
Continental Air Forces (CAF) was a United States Army Air Forces major command at the end of World War II and during the early Cold War for combat training of bomber and fighter personnel and for Continental United States (CONUS) air defense after the Aircraft Warning Corps and Ground Observer Corps were placed in standby during 1944.

James Stewart

Jimmy StewartJames "Jimmy" StewartJames M. "Jimmy" Stewart
Jimmy Stewart, a Hollywood movie star serving as an AAF pilot, used the terms "Air Corps" and "Air Forces" interchangeably in the narration of the 1942 recruiting short "Winning Your Wings".
This airfield became part of the United States Army Air Forces training establishment and trained more than 10,000 pilots during World War II.

Messerschmitt Bf 110

Bf 110Bf 110sBf 110 G-4
American fighter aircraft were inferior to the British Spitfire and Hurricane, and German Messerschmitt Bf 110 and 109.
After the Battle of Britain the Bf 110 enjoyed a successful period as an air superiority fighter and strike aircraft in other theatres, and defended Germany from strategic air attack by day against the USAAF's 8th Air Force, until a major change in American fighter tactics rendered them increasingly vulnerable to developing American air supremacy over the Reich as 1944 began.

VIII Fighter Command

8th Fighter Command8th Fighter Command USAAF8th Interceptor (later, 8th Fighter; VIII Fighter)
For instance, the Eighth Air Force listed the VIII Bomber Command and the VIII Fighter Command as subordinate operational commands.
The VIII Fighter Command was a United States Army Air Forces unit of command above the Wings and below the numbered air force.

James Robinson Risner

Robinson RisnerJames R. RisnerBrig. Gen. James Robinson "Robbie" Risner
Two fighter pilot beneficiaries of this change went on to become brigadier generals in the United States Air Force, James Robinson Risner and Charles E. Yeager.
Risner enlisted in the United States Army Air Forces as an aviation cadet in April 1943 and attended flight training at Williams Field, Arizona, where he was awarded his pilot wings and a commission as 2nd Lieutenant in May 1944.

United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe

U.S. Strategic Air Forces in EuropeEighth Air ForceUnited States Strategic Air Forces
Some grew out of earlier commands as the service expanded in size and hierarchy (for example, the V Air Support Command became the Ninth Air Force in April 1942), and higher echelons such as United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) in Europe and U.S. Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific became necessary to control the whole.
The United States Strategic Air Forces (USSTAF) was a formation of the United States Army Air Forces.

Luftwaffe

German Air ForceGermanair force
Although other nations already had separate air forces independent of their army or navy (such as the British Royal Air Force and the German Luftwaffe), the AAF remained a part of the Army until a defense reorganization in the post-war period resulted in the passage by the United States Congress of the National Security Act of 1947 with the creation of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947.
Meanwhile, the Luftwaffe continued to defend German-occupied Europe against the growing offensive power of RAF Bomber Command and, starting in the summer of 1942, the steadily building strength of the United States Army Air Forces.

Army Air Forces Training Command

AAF Flying Training CommandAir Corps Flying Training CommandArmy Air Corps
Army Air Forces Training Command
Re-designated on or about 15 March 1942, after the Army Air Forces became an autonomous arm of the United States Army.