A report on United States Army Air Forces

AAF Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
General of the Army Henry H. ("Hap") Arnold
USAAF recruitment poster
Tuskegee Airmen War bonds poster
1943 portrait of WAC air controller
AAF Training Command patch
USAAF recruiting poster
USAAF insignia from July 1943 to January 1947
B-17G Fortresses of the 306th Bomb Group
P-51 Mustang of 361st Fighter Group, 1944
Taylorcraft L-2
C-47 of the 438th Troop Carrier Group
USAAF AT-6Cs near Luke Field, 1943
UC-64 Norseman
General Carl A. Spaatz
Medal of Honor recipient Major Richard Bong in Officer's Service Dress
Awards ceremony at RAF Debden, April 1944, illustrating varying shades of olive drab and the M-1944 "Ike jacket". Light shade 33 on left, dark shade 51 on right. Trousers are shade 33, khaki shade 1, and drab shade 54. The three combinations at right are "pinks and greens".
At the AAF School of Air Evacuation at Bowman Field, Ky., student flight nurses learned how to handle patients with the aid of a mock-up fuselage of a Douglas C-47 transport.
Female service dress in OD shade 33 at Randolph Field, 1944
USAAF flight crew
First Air Force
Second Air Force
Third Air Force
Fourth Air Force
Fifth Air Force
Sixth Air Force
Seventh Air Force
Eighth Air Force
Ninth Air Force
Tenth Air Force
Eleventh Air Force
Twelfth Air Force
Thirteenth Air Force
Fourteenth Air Force
Fifteenth Air Force
Twentieth Air Force

The major land-based aerial warfare service component of the United States Army and de facto aerial warfare service branch of the United States during and immediately after World War II (1941–1945).

- United States Army Air Forces
AAF Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

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United States Army Air Corps

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The aerial warfare service component of the United States Army between 1926 and 1941.

The aerial warfare service component of the United States Army between 1926 and 1941.

United States Army Air Corps Recruiting Poster
Formations of Keystone LB-7s (lower) and Boeing P-12s (upper) on aerial maneuvers over Burbank, California, 1930
O-46A at Wright Field
B-6A of 1st Bomb Squadron, 9th BG, 1935. The dual stripes on the fuselage denote the aircraft of the squadron commander.
P-26A in livery of 19th Pursuit Squadron, 18th PG, Wheeler Field, Hawaii
"Gear down" test flight of the Boeing Y1B-9 bomber in 1932. At the time it was faster than any existing pursuit plane.
Interception of the Rex. The navigator for the mission was 1st Lt. Curtis LeMay.
Douglas C-39 transport
Martin B-12A (variant of the B-10) of 31st Bomb Squadron, 7th BG, Hamilton Field, California
Curtiss A-12 Shrike of the 13th Attack Squadron, 3d AG, Barksdale Field, Louisiana
PT-13, Air Corps primary trainer
O-38F
P-12E of 6th Pursuit Squadron, 18th PG 1935–1938, Wheeler Field, Hawaii
Generals Benjamin D. Foulois, Assistant Chief of Air Corps (left); James E. Fechet, Chief of Air Corps; and H. Conger Pratt, Chief of Materiel Division, in 1931.

The Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) on 20 June 1941, giving it greater autonomy from the Army's middle-level command structure.

The first F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arriving at Eglin AFB

United States Air Force

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Air service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

Air service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

The first F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arriving at Eglin AFB
An Air Force RQ-4 strategic reconnaissance aircraft
An Air Force KC-46 Pegasus refuels a C-17A Globemaster III
An Air Force A-10 demonstrating close air support at Nellis AFB
Test launch of a LGM-30 Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile from Vandenberg AFB
Combined Air Operations Center at Al Udeid Air Base
Roundels that have appeared on U.S. military aircraft
1.) 5/1917–2/1918
2.) 2/1918–8/1919
3.) 8/1919–5/1942
4.) 5/1942–6/1943
5.) 6/1943–9/1943
6.) 9/1943–1/1947
7.) 1/1947–
The SR-71 Blackbird was a Cold War reconnaissance plane.
The F-117 Nighthawk was a stealth attack aircraft (retired from service in April 2008).
A row of Douglas C-54 Skymasters during the Berlin Airlift in 1949
Various Air Force personnel pose during the Air Force's 74th birthday celebration at the Pentagon, September 17, 2021.
Organization of the United States Air Force within the Department of Defense
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Pararescuemen and a simulated "survivor" watch as an HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter comes in for a landing
U.S. Air Force trainee demonstrating a butt stroke on a strike dummy as part of Basic Military Training.
USAF Airmen training at Lackland AFB
A-10 Thunderbolt II ground-attack aircraft
B-2 Spirit stealth bomber
A C-17 Globemaster III, the USAF's newest and most versatile transport plane
E-3 Sentry airborne warning and control system
F-22 Raptor stealth air superiority fighter
KC-10 Extender tri-jet air-to-air tanker
An MC-12W Liberty at Beale AFB
MQ-9 unmanned aerial vehicle
Lockheed U-2 spy plane
RQ-170 Sentinel stealth unmanned aerial vehicle reconnaissance aircraft
VC-25A (Air Force One)
A WC-130J Hercules from the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron
An unarmed Minuteman III ICBM shoots out of the silo during an operational test launch

In practice, the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) was virtually independent of the Army during World War II, and in virtually every way functioned as an independent service branch, but airmen still pressed for formal independence.

General Henry H. Arnold between 1946 and 1949

Henry H. Arnold

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American general officer holding the ranks of General of the Army and later, General of the Air Force.

American general officer holding the ranks of General of the Army and later, General of the Air Force.

General Henry H. Arnold between 1946 and 1949
A young Henry Arnold at the second-seat controls of a Wright Model B airplane 1911
Colonel Henry Arnold in the War Department in Washington, D.C., April 1918
Major Henry H. Arnold with the first Liberty V12 aero engine completed
Maj. Gen. Mason M. Patrick, Chief of Air Service
The court-martial of Billy Mitchell (standing), November 1925.
Martin B-10B bomber.
B-17 Flying Fortresses of the 381st Bomb Group, Eighth Air Force.
B-29 Superfortress
Marshall (center) and Arnold (right) greeted by General Omar Bradley on Omaha Beach in Normandy, June 12, 1944.
General of the Army

Arnold was an aviation pioneer, Chief of the Air Corps (1938–1941), commanding general of the United States Army Air Forces, the only United States Air Force general to hold five-star rank, and the only officer to hold a five-star rank in two different U.S. military services.

Shield of the Eighth Air Force

Eighth Air Force

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Numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).

Numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).

Shield of the Eighth Air Force
B-17 Flying Fortresses over Europe during World War II
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Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses from the 398th Bombardment Group fly a bombing run to Neumünster, Germany, on 13 April 1945. On 8 May, Germany surrendered, and Victory in Europe Day was declared.
Aircraft and ground crew of Boeing B-17F-25-BO Fortress "Hell's Angels" (AAF Ser. No. 41-24577) of the 358th Bombardment Squadron, 303rd Bombardment Group, RAF Molesworth. This was the first B-17 to complete 25 combat missions in the 8th Air Force, on 13 May 1943. After completing 48 missions, the aircraft returned to the U.S. on 20 January 1944, for a publicity tour.
North American P-51 Mustangs of the 375th Fighter Squadron, 361st FG, summer 1944
Destroyed Luftwaffe Fw 190, 1945
Destroyed Berlin, Germany, May 1945
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Martin-Omaha B-29-40-MO Superfortress AF Ser. No. 44-27353 of the 509th Bomb Wing, Walker AFB, 1948
8th Air Force organizational chart, 1947
Strategic Air Command 8th Air Force North American F-82E "Twin Mustangs" of the 27th Fighter Wing on the flightline of Kearney Air Force Base, Nebraska, 1948. Serials 46-322 and 46-332 are identifiable.
Three ship formation of Republic P-47N Thunderbolts
Eighth Air Force Boeing B-47E-50-LM (S/N 52-3363) in flight
Eighth Air Force Boeing B-52D-70-BO (S/N 56-0582) (left), being refueled by Boeing KC-135A-BN (S/N 55-3127)
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Emblem of the 1st Air Division
Nine-O-Nine, 91st BG/323rd BS B-17G, displaying 1st Combat Bomb Wing "Triangle-A" tail code
Emblem of the 2d Air Division
448th BG/713th BS Ford B-24H-25-FO Liberator 42-95185 "Do Bunny". This aircraft was shot down by a Me 262 on 25 March 1945 over Soltau, Germany
Emblem of the 3d Air Division
Boeing B-17G-70-BO Fortress AAF Serial No. 43-37683 of the 96th BG/339th BS

Established on 22 February 1944 by the redesignation of VIII Bomber Command at RAF Daws Hill in High Wycombe, England, the Eighth Army Air Force (8 AAF) was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force in the European Theater of World War II (1939/41–1945), engaging in operations primarily in the Northern Europe area of responsibility; carrying out strategic bombing of enemy targets in France, the Low Countries, and Germany; and engaging in air-to-air fighter combat against enemy aircraft until the German capitulation in May 1945.

United States Army Air Forces Consolidated B-24D Liberator over Maxwell Field, Alabama.

Consolidated B-24 Liberator

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American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.

American heavy bomber, designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, California.

United States Army Air Forces Consolidated B-24D Liberator over Maxwell Field, Alabama.
United States Army Air Forces Consolidated B-24D Liberator over Maxwell Field, Alabama.
XB-24 in flight
An early B-24D
Consolidated LB-30A, s/n AM260, used by Atlantic Ferry Command
Rare color photograph of an LB-30A (YB-24) in RAF service
Consolidated Liberator Mk.I of 120 Squadron Coastal Command RAF, used from December 1941
AAF Antisubmarine Command (AAFAC) modifications at the Consolidated-Vultee Plant, Fort Worth, Texas in the foreground in the olive drab and white paint scheme. To the rear of this front line are partly assembled C-87 "Liberator Express Transports".
Anti-Submarine Weapons: Leigh light used for spotting U-boats on the surface at night, fitted to a Liberator aircraft of Royal Air Force Coastal Command. 26 February 1944.
B-24s bomb the Ploiești oil fields in August 1943
The bomb bay of a surviving B-24J Liberator in 2016
15th Air Force B-24s fly through flak and over the destruction created by preceding waves of bombers.
A B-24M of the 448th Bombardment Group, serial number 44-50838, downed by a Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter
B-24D-30-CO assembly ship First Sergeant, 458th Bomb Group
B-24 cockpit
C-109 tanker unloading
The crew of a No. 21 Squadron RAAF Liberator with their aircraft
B-24 Bomber flying over China during WW2
Looking up one of the assembly lines at Ford's big Willow Run plant, where B-24E (Liberator) bombers are being made.
B-24s under construction at Ford Motor's Willow Run plant
WASP pilots (left to right) Eloise Huffines Bailey, Millie Davidson Dalrymple, Elizabeth McKethan Magid and Clara Jo Marsh Stember, with a B-24 in the background
LB-30A Diamond Lil from the Commemorative Air Force collection. Airframe returned to B-24A configuration and renamed Ol' 927. She was renamed back to Diamond Lil in May 2012.
B-24Ds of 93rd Bomb Group in formation. Nearest aircraft is Joisey Bounce (s/n 41-24226), wingman is The Duchess, (s/n 41-24147), and next higher is Bomerang (s/n 41-23722).
B-24E
B-24J-55-CO (s/n 42-99949) belonged to 93rd BG, 328th BS; lost 21 September 1944 over Belgium
B-24M-20-CO Bolivar Jr. (s/n 44-42151) 431st Bomb Squadron, 11th Bomb Group
Experimental B-24J-15-CO, 42-73130, with B-17G nose section, containing chin turret, grafted on; modification not adopted for production
RAF Coastal Command ASV Mk. II-equipped Liberator GR.III of No. 120 Squadron RAF.
A B-24M of the 451st BG releases its bombs on the railyards at Mühldorf, Germany, on 19 March 1945
B-24 nose art at the National Museum of the Mighty Eighth Air Force
Consolidated B-24E Liberator recognition drawings
B-24 photographed from above, showing the Davis wing design.
Turret assembly of B-24D Liberator bomber, Hill Aerospace Museum.
B-24D tail guns at the National Museum of the United States Air Force.
Maintenance mechanics at Laredo Army Air Field, Texas, give a Consolidated B-24 Liberator a complete overhaul before flight, 8 February 1944.

The name "Liberator" was originally given to it by the RAF, and subsequently adopted by the USAAF as the official name for the Model 24.

Fifteenth Air Force

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Numbered air force of the United States Air Force's Air Combat Command (ACC).

Numbered air force of the United States Air Force's Air Combat Command (ACC).

15th USAAF patch
Restored P-51D of the 31st Fighter Group, 308th Fighter Squadron, "Flying Dutchman", showing 12 aerial victories.
B-24 of the 464h Bomb Group
B-17F of the 97th Bomb Group over the Alps
B-24 of the 451st Bomb Group
15th Air Force org chart, 1947
Boeing B-50D of Fifteenth Air Force displaying while on detachment to England in May 1953
Over the course of the war, at least 16 B-29 bombers were shot down by communist aircraft.
B-52D Dropping bombs over Southeast Asia
KC-135 refueling F-15s and F-16s
US F-16 from the 15th AF exits it's hanger while a Pakistani F-16B from the 9th Squadron taxis to the runway during Excercise Falcon Talon 2022

Established on 1 November 1943, Fifteenth AF was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force deployed to the European Theater of World War II, engaging in strategic bombardment operations from bases in southern Italy and engaging in air-to-air fighter combat against enemy aircraft.

A B-17G, Sentimental Journey, performing at the 2014 Chino Airshow in Chino, California

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

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Four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps .

Four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps .

A B-17G, Sentimental Journey, performing at the 2014 Chino Airshow in Chino, California
A B-17G, Sentimental Journey, performing at the 2014 Chino Airshow in Chino, California
Installation of fixtures and assemblies on a tail fuselage section of a B-17 at the Douglas plant in Long Beach, California, October 1942
B-17Bs at March Field, California, prior to attack on Pearl Harbor, with framed nose glazing of the style retained through the B-17E model
Nose of a B-17G being restored at the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum
Waist position gun blister of Model 299, not adopted for production
Boeing-built B-17Fs, with the clear-view two-piece Plexiglas bombardier's nose.
B-17G nose detail
Postwar SB-17G-95DL (ser. no. 44-83722), assigned to the 2nd ERS as a search-and-rescue aircraft, beside a Stinson L-5
Boeing B-17E Flying Fortress of the 19th Bombardment Group USAAF, summer 1942
B-17 Flying Fortresses from the 398th Bombardment Group flying a bombing mission to Neumünster, Germany, on 13 April 1945.
RAF Fortress I serial AN529, with He 111H-style "bathtub" ventral gondola
Marks and letters on the tails of B-17 during WWII in Europe
B-17F formation over Schweinfurt, Germany, 17 August 1943
Boeing B-17F radar bombing through clouds: Bremen, Germany, on 13 November 1943
B-17G of the 384th Bomb Group on the bomb run
B-17C AAF S/N 40-2074 at Hickam Field: An onboard fire burnt the aircraft in two shortly after landing on 7 December 1941. One crewman was killed by a Zero attack.
B-17E BO AAF S/N 41-9211
Typhoon McGoon II of the 11th BG / 98th BS, taken in January 1943 in New Caledonia: The antennae mounted upon the nose were used for radar tracking surface vessels.
Part of a USAAF stream of over 1,000 B-17s
German training model on how to attack a "flying porcupine" (fliegendes Stachelschwein)
"Combat boxes" of 12 B-17 during bombing missions
Formation flying through dense flak over Merseburg, Germany
B-17G 43-38172 of the 8th AF 398th BG 601st BS which was damaged on a bombing mission over Cologne, Germany, on 15 October 1944; the bombardier was killed.
B-17G-15-BO Wee Willie, 322d BS, 91st BG, after direct flak hit on her 128th mission.
Captured B-17F-27-BO in Luftwaffe markings, the USAAF-named "Wulfe-Hound", 41-24585, of the 360th BS/303rd BG, was downed on 12 December 1942 near Leeuwarden, Netherlands, while on a raid on Rouen, France. The first Flying Fortress to fall intact into German hands, it was operated by Kampfgeschwader 200 from March 1944.
This captured USAAF Boeing B-17D, in Japanese livery, was flown to Japan for technical evaluation
BQ-17 Flying Fortress drones over New Mexico, April 1946
SB-17G of the USAF 5th Rescue Squadron c. 1950
Under project Cadillac II, an AN/APS-20 radar was fitted onto the B-17G, making the PB-1W one of the first Airborne early warning aircraft.
The U.S. Coast Guard PB-1G carried a droppable lifeboat.
Military operators of the B-17
Civil operators of the B-17
The B-17's capacity to repel enemy attacks and still inflict heavy damage upon German military capability and production centers is rendered in this caricature.
The severely damaged All American continues to fly after collision with an attacking Bf 109 fighter, eventually landing without crew injuries.
Maynard H. Smith receiving Medal of Honor from Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson
Forrest L. Vosler receiving Medal of Honor from President Roosevelt
L–R, Nancy Love, pilot and Betty (Huyler) Gillies, co-pilot, the first women to fly the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber for the WASP
3-view projection of a B-17G, with inset detail showing the "Cheyenne tail" and some major differences with other B-17 variants
B-17G nose guns
B-17 modified for testing of the XT-34 turboprop. When testing concluded, the aircraft was restored to stock configuration as the "Liberty Belle", but was lost in a post-forced-landing fire near Oswego, Illinois, on 13 June 2011.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial, military and civilian targets.

Frank Maxwell Andrews

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Lieutenant General Andrews (in the middle) inspects a radio set at the Command Post of the Provisional Maneuver Force in Puerto Rico, November 1941. Next to him are generals: James Lawton Collins and Harry C. Ingles.
U.S. Army personnel remove bodies from the wreckage of Andrews' B-24 after it struck a mountainside in Iceland, May 1943.
Andrews' grave at Arlington National Cemetery.

Lieutenant General Frank Maxwell Andrews (February 3, 1884 – May 3, 1943) was a senior officer of the United States Army and one of the founders of the United States Army Air Forces, which was later to become the United States Air Force.

P-51D of 375th Fighter Squadron, with underwing drop tanks

North American P-51 Mustang

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American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.

American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts.

P-51D of 375th Fighter Squadron, with underwing drop tanks
P-51D of 375th Fighter Squadron, with underwing drop tanks
North American NA-73X, with a short carburetor air intake scoop and the frameless, rounded windshield: On the production Mustang Mk Is, the frameless windshield was replaced with a three-piece unit that incorporated a bullet-resistant windshield.
P-51D on the Inglewood assembly line
XP-51 41-039, one of two Mustang Mk I aircraft handed over to the USAAC for testing
A Royal Air Force North American Mustang Mk III (FX908) on the ground at Hucknall
P-51 Mustangs of the 375th Fighter Squadron, Eighth Air Force mid-1944
Pilots of the all-Black American 332nd Fighter Group (the Tuskegee Airmen) at Ramitelli, Italy: From left, Lt. Dempsey W. Morgran, Lt. Carroll S. Woods, Lt. Robert H. Nelron, Jr., Capt. Andrew D. Turner, and Lt. Clarence D. Lester
A USAAF armorer of the 100th Fighter Squadron, 332nd Fighter Group, 15th U.S. Air Force checks ammunition belts of the .50 caliber (12.7 mm) Browning machine guns in the wings of a North American P-51B Mustang in Italy, circa September 1944
P-51D 44-14888 of the 8th AF/357th FG/363rd FS, named Glamorous Glen III, is the aircraft in which Chuck Yeager achieved most of his 12.5 kills, including two Me 262s – shown here with twin single-use 108-gallon (409-l) drop tanks fitted. This aircraft was renamed "Melody's Answer" and crashed on Mar 2, 1945, from unknown causes at Haseloff, west of Treuenbrietzen, Germany.
Top-scoring Mustang ace of WWII, Major George Earl Preddy Jr. with 26.83 aerial victories and five aircraft destroyed on the ground (first three victories were achieved on P-47)
P-51D Mustang Detroit Miss of the 375th Fighter Squadron: Urban L. Drew flew this aircraft in the autumn 1944 and shot down six German aircraft, including two jet-powered Me 262s in a single mission.
A P-51 Mustang taking off from Iwo Jima.
USS Boxer (CV-21) loads 146 USAF F-51Ds at Alameda for the Korean theater, in July 1950.
An F-51 Mustang, laden with bombs and rockets, taxis through a puddle at an airbase in Korea.
West Virginia Air National Guard F-51D. Note: postwar "uncuffed" propeller unit.
P-51Ds of 82 Squadron RAAF in Bofu, Japan, as part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force, in 1947
A Cavalier Mustang, formerly of the Bolivian Air Force, parked on a Canadian airfield
Lynn Garrison with RCAF 9281, 1956, during the 1969 Football War, returned to the U.S. by Jerry Janes and flown as Cottonmouth
P-51 of the Republic of China Air Force, 1953
P-51D Mustang in Military Museum of the Chinese People's Revolution
Guatemalan Air Force P-51Ds at Guatemala La Aurora International
Indonesian Air Force P-51
A P-51D at the Israeli Air Force Museum: The marking beneath the cockpit notes its participation in the wire-cutting operation at the onset of the Suez Crisis.
Italian P-51D Mustang.
Netherlands North American P-51 Mustang
P-51D in 3 (Canterbury) Squadron TAF livery, performing at 2007 Wings over Wairarapa airshow
Philippine Air Force P-51D: The tailwheels were fixed in the extended position.
North American F-51D Mustang fighters of No. 2 Squadron of the South African Air Force in Korea, on 1 May 1951
The F-51D in ROKAF service
Swedish Air Force J 26 on display at Swedish Air Force Museum
A restored Swiss Air Force P-51D at the Flieger-Flab-Museum
Cavalier P-51 Mustang with tiptanks
Miss Helen, a P-51D in its wartime markings as flown by Capt. Raymond H. Littge of the 487 FS, 352 FG, on aerial display in 2007: It is the last original 352 FG P-51 known to exist.
The Rebel, a P-51D-25-NT, at the 2014 Reno Air Races
TP-51C "Betty Jane" dual control Warbird of the Collings Foundation appears at airshows around the United States
3-view drawing of P-51D Mustang
The restored P-51C Mustang associated with the Tuskegee Airmen now flown by Red Tail Project as described in Red Tail Reborn
Nose of P-51 Gunfighter
Wing and guns

From late 1943, P-51Bs and P-51Cs (supplemented by P-51Ds from mid-1944) were used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF's Second Tactical Air Force and the USAAF's Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944.

Shield of Aerospace Defense Command

Aerospace Defense Command

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Major command of the United States Air Force, responsible for continental air defense.

Major command of the United States Air Force, responsible for continental air defense.

Shield of Aerospace Defense Command
Shield of Aerospace Defense Command
Shield of Air Defense Command
Convair F-106A Delta Dart of ADC's 5th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron near Mount Rushmore (lower right background)
Artist's impression of the North American XF-108 Rapier
One of the three Lockheed YF-12A prototypes had Air Defense Command markings (vertical stabilizer nearest center) during 1963 Edwards testing by AFSC's 4786th TS. Using the AN/ASG-18 from the F-108 Rapier program and Falcon missile developed for the F-108A, the Mach 3 interceptor was funded by Congress with $90 million for a 14 May 1965 USAF order of 93 F-12B aircraft (cancelled by SECDEF).
B-57E, AF Ser. No. 55-4277, a target towing aircraft of the 8th Bomb Squadron at Yokota AB, Japan in 1958. Note the bright orange paint on the upper fuselage and wings
October 1960 SAMs near the BOMARC Missile Accident Site after the 7 June 1960 BOMARC nuclear accident. BOMARC alert status ended in 1972, e.g., ADC first closed a BOMARC B complex on 31 December 1969.
Martin EB-57E, AF Ser. No. 55-4241, of the 4577th DSES flying over the Great Salt Lake, Utah about 1970. Retired 30 July 1979
ADC squadrons at Thule Site J and Clear AFS used each AN/FPS-50 to sweep 2 radar beams each ~1° in azimuth x 3.5° elevation (illustrated much less thick). Azimuth sweeping created a "Lower Fan" centered at 3.5° elevation and "Upper Fan" at 7° (both illustrated much higher) with "revisit time of 2 sec" for ICBM detection.
The "war room" of the Chidlaw Building's Combined Operations Center took over command center operations in 1963 from the nearby Ent AFB "main battle control center" (screens show missile impact ellipses for an exercise.)
Emblem of Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC)

The United States Army Air Forces activated Air Defense Command (ADC) in 1946, with a Numbered Air Force of the former Continental Air Forces, from which it took its mission of air warning and air defense.