United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of RightsBill of Rights DayThe Bill of RightsAmerican Bill of Rightsfederal Bill of Rights12 amendments1st Amendmentamendments
The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.wikipedia
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List of amendments to the United States Constitution

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The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
The first ten amendments were adopted and ratified simultaneously and are known collectively as the Bill of Rights.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.
In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
Due largely to the efforts of Representative James Madison, who studied the deficiencies of the constitution pointed out by anti-federalists and then crafted a series of corrective proposals, Congress approved twelve articles of amendment on September 25, 1789, and submitted them to the states for ratification. Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights.

Anti-Federalism

Anti-FederalistAnti-FederalistsAntifederalist
Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.
Though the Constitution was ratified and supplanted the Articles of Confederation, Anti-Federalist influence helped lead to the passage of the United States Bill of Rights.

Incorporation of the Bill of Rights

incorporatedincorporationincorporation doctrine
The process is known as incorporation.
Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.

Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution

Twenty-seventh Amendment27th Amendment27th Amendment to the United States Constitution
Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment.
While ten of these twelve proposals were ratified in 1791 to become the Bill of Rights, what would become the Twenty-seventh Amendment and the proposed Congressional Apportionment Amendment did not get ratified by enough states for them to also come into force with the first ten amendments.

Virginia Declaration of Rights

Declaration of RightsVirginia Bill of RightsBill of Rights
The concepts codified in these amendments are built upon those found in earlier documents, especially the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776), as well as the English Bill of Rights (1689) and the Magna Carta (1215).
It influenced a number of later documents, including the United States Declaration of Independence (1776) and the United States Bill of Rights (1789).

Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
The door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
The Supreme Court has ruled this clause makes most of the Bill of Rights as applicable to the states as it is to the federal government, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural requirements that state laws must satisfy.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.
With the passage of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, the anti-federalist movement was exhausted.

George Mason

George Mason IVaddressedMason
On September 12, George Mason of Virginia suggested the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution modeled on previous state declarations, and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts made it a formal motion.
The Virginia Declaration of Rights, which Mason principally authored, served as a basis for the United States Bill of Rights, of which he has been deemed the father.

National Archives and Records Administration

National ArchivesU.S. National ArchivesNARA
One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
The National Archives, and its publicly exhibited Charters of Freedom which include the original United States Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, United States Bill of Rights, and many other historical documents, is headquartered in the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.

Congressional Apportionment Amendment

Article OneArticle Ifirst proposed amendment
Article One is still pending before the states.
The Congressional Apportionment Amendment is the only one of the twelve amendments passed by Congress which was never ratified; ten amendments were ratified as the Bill of Rights, while the other amendment was ratified as the Twenty-seventh Amendment in 1992.

Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge T. GerryMr. GerryDeath of Elbridge Gerry
On September 12, George Mason of Virginia suggested the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution modeled on previous state declarations, and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts made it a formal motion.
He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not then include a Bill of Rights.

The Federalist Papers

Federalist PapersPubliusThe Federalist
Another delegate, James Wilson of Pennsylvania, later argued that the act of enumerating the rights of the people would have been dangerous, because it would imply that rights not explicitly mentioned did not exist; Hamilton echoed this point in Federalist No. 84.
In Federalist No. 84, Hamilton makes the case that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights, insisting that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a "bill of rights".

New York (state)

New YorkNew York StateNY
Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court.

Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fifth AmendmentFifthU.S. Const. amend. V
The convention's proposed amendments included a requirement for grand jury indictment in capital cases, which would form part of the Fifth Amendment, and an amendment reserving powers to the states not expressly given to the federal government, which would later form the basis for the Tenth Amendment.
It was ratified in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights.

Virginia

Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
Although the Convention was purportedly intended only to revise the Articles, the intention of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one.
James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.

Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Tenth Amendment10th AmendmentTenth
The convention's proposed amendments included a requirement for grand jury indictment in capital cases, which would form part of the Fifth Amendment, and an amendment reserving powers to the states not expressly given to the federal government, which would later form the basis for the Tenth Amendment.
The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution, which is part of the Bill of Rights, was ratified on December 15, 1791.

1st United States Congress

First CongressFirst United States Congress1st Congress
The 1st United States Congress, which met in New York City's Federal Hall, was a triumph for the Federalists.
Twelve articles of amendment to the Constitution were passed by this Congress and sent to the states for ratification; the ten ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15, 1791, are collectively known as the Bill of Rights.

Washington, D.C.

Washington, DCWashington D.C.District of Columbia
One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
The National Archives houses thousands of documents important to American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights.

Luther Martin

A minority of the Constitution's critics, such as Maryland's Luther Martin, continued to oppose ratification.
He was a leading Anti-Federalist, along with Patrick Henry and George Mason, whose actions helped passage of the Bill of Rights.

First Amendment to the United States Constitution

First AmendmentFirstU.S. Const. amend. I
It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights.

Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourth AmendmentFourthU.S. Const. amend. IV
The Fourth Amendment (Amendment IV) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.

Roger Sherman

Elizabeth Hartwell
However, after only a brief discussion where Roger Sherman pointed out that State Bills of Rights were not repealed by the new Constitution, the motion was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations.
Sherman is also memorable for his stance against paper money with his authoring of Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution and his later opposition to James Madison over the "Bill of Rights" amendments to the U.S. Constitution in his belief that these amendments would diminish the role and power of the states over the people.