United States Bill of Rights

On June 5, 1788, Patrick Henry spoke before Virginia's ratification convention in opposition to the Constitution.
George Washington's 1788 letter to the Marquis de Lafayette observed, "the Convention of Massachusetts adopted the Constitution in toto; but recommended a number of specific alterations and quieting explanations." Source: Library of Congress
James Madison, primary author and chief advocate for the Bill of Rights in the First Congress

The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

- United States Bill of Rights

54 related topics

Alpha

Portrait of Luther Martin

Luther Martin

Politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, who left the Constitutional Convention early because he felt the Constitution violated states' rights.

Politician and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, who left the Constitutional Convention early because he felt the Constitution violated states' rights.

Portrait of Luther Martin

He was a leading Anti-Federalist, along with Patrick Henry and George Mason, whose actions helped passage of the Bill of Rights.

Fisher Ames

Representative in the United States Congress from the 1st Congressional District of Massachusetts.

Representative in the United States Congress from the 1st Congressional District of Massachusetts.

The Ames Tavern
Plaque on the Norfolk County Registry of Deeds

His acceptance of the Bill of Rights garnered support in Massachusetts for the new Constitution.

Barron v. Baltimore

Landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1833, which helped define the concept of federalism in US constitutional law.

Landmark United States Supreme Court case in 1833, which helped define the concept of federalism in US constitutional law.

The Court ruled that the Bill of Rights did not apply to the state governments, establishing a precedent until the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Everson v. Board of Education

Legal systems of the world. Common law countries are in several shades of pink, corresponding to variations in common law systems.

Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (1947), was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court which applied the Establishment Clause in the country's Bill of Rights to state law.

New Jersey

State in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.

State in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States.

The relative location of the New Netherland and New Sweden settlements in eastern North America
Washington Crossing the Delaware in the winter of 1777, during the New York and New Jersey campaign (painting by Emanuel Leutze, 1851)
George Washington rallying his troops at the Battle of Princeton
A map of the 107-mile long Morris Canal across northern New Jersey
New Jersey, seen here in Warrren County, shares the Delaware Water Gap with neighboring Pennsylvania.
The Raritan River is the longest river entirely within New Jersey, flowing from the Raritan Valley near Clinton, Hunterdon County (above), eastward to the Raritan Bay.
Part of the Palisades Interstate Park, the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades in Bergen (seen here) and Hudson counties overlook the Hudson River.
The Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, Passaic County, dedicated as a U.S. National Historical Park in November 2011, incorporates one of the largest waterfalls in the eastern United States.
New Jersey population density map (2020)
Race and ethnicity (2015)
Bergen County (버건 군), New Jersey, across the George Washington Bridge from New York City (뉴욕), is a growing hub and home to [[List of U.S. cities with significant Korean-American populations#Top ten municipalities as ranked by Korean-American percentage of overall population in 2010|all of the nation's top ten municipalities by percentage of Korean population]], led (above) by Palisades Park (벼랑 공원), the municipality with the highest List of U.S. cities with significant Korean-Ameridensity of ethnic Koreans in the Western Hemisphere. Displaying ubiquitous Hangul (한글) signage and known as the Korean village, Palisades Park uniquely comprises a Korean majority (52% in 2010) of its population, with both the [[List of U.S. cities with significant Korean-American populations#Municipalities with density of at least 500 Korean Americans per square mile in 2010|highest Korean-American density and percentage]] of any municipality in the United States.
India Square, in Bombay, Jersey City, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere. Immigrants from India constituted the largest foreign-born nationality in New Jersey in 2013.
Beth Medrash Govoha (Hebrew:בית מדרש גבוה), in Lakewood Township, Ocean County, is the world's largest yeshiva outside the State of Israel. Orthodox Jews represent one of the fastest-growing segments of New Jersey's population.
Metropolitan statistical areas and divisions of New Jersey. The New York City Metropolitan Area includes the counties shaded in blue hues, as well as Mercer and Warren counties, the latter representing part of the Lehigh Valley. Counties shaded in green hues, as well as Atlantic, Cape May, and Cumberland counties, belong to the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area.
A heat map showing median income distribution by county in New Jersey
Cranberry harvest
Atlantic City is an oceanfront resort and the nexus of New Jersey's gambling industry.
Old Queens at Rutgers University, the flagship of public higher education in New Jersey
Nassau Hall at Princeton University, one of the world's most prominent research universities
Downtown New Brunswick, an educational and cultural district undergoing gentrification
A 1950s-style diner in Orange, Essex County
MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford is home to the NFL's New York Giants and New York Jets, and the most expensive stadium ever built.
The Prudential Center in Newark, home of the NHL's New Jersey Devils
Red Bull Arena in Harrison, home of the MLS's New York Red Bulls
New Jersey's area codes
Map of New Jersey showing major transportation networks and cities
The George Washington Bridge, connecting Fort Lee (foreground) in Bergen County across the Hudson River to New York City, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.
A NJ Transit train heads down the Northeast Corridor through Rahway, New Jersey
Two Hudson-Bergen Light Rail trains in Jersey City
The Cape May–Lewes Ferry connects New Jersey and Delaware across Delaware Bay.
The New Jersey State House in Trenton
Atlantic City Boardwalk view from Caesars Atlantic City. Opened in 1870, it was the first boardwalk built in the United States. At 5+1/2 mi long, it is also the longest in the world.
High-rise residential complexes in the borough of Fort Lee
Paterson, known as the "Silk City",<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.patersonnj.gov/|title=City of Paterson—Silk City|access-date=April 2, 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131109161822/http://www.patersonnj.gov/|archive-date=November 9, 2013|url-status=live}}</ref> has become a prime destination for an internationally diverse pool of immigrants,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://yumimmigrantcity.com/restaurants/machu-picchu/a-brief-history-of-peruvian-immigration-to-the-united-states/|title=A Brief History of Peruvian Immigration to the United States|publisher=yumimmigrantcity.com|access-date=April 2, 2013|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130731004838/http://yumimmigrantcity.com/restaurants/machu-picchu/a-brief-history-of-peruvian-immigration-to-the-united-states/|archive-date=July 31, 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite magazine|url=http://thealternativepress.com/articles/patersons-bengali-community-takes-pride-in-akhta|title=Paterson's Bengali Community Takes Pride in Akhtaruzzaman's Upset Victory|author1=Joe Malinconico|author2=Charlie Kratovil|name-list-style=amp|magazine=The Alternative Press|date=May 9, 2012|access-date=April 2, 2013|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130514190904/http://thealternativepress.com/articles/patersons-bengali-community-takes-pride-in-akhta|archive-date=May 14, 2013|url-status=dead}}</ref> with at least 52 distinct ethnic groups.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.northjersey.com/news/political-battle-brewing-over-paterson-s-plans-for-hispanic-heritage-month-event-1.1096285|title=Political battle brewing over Paterson's plans for Hispanic Heritage Month event|author=Joe Malinconico|date=September 25, 2014|access-date=September 27, 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140926133042/http://www.northjersey.com/news/political-battle-brewing-over-paterson-s-plans-for-hispanic-heritage-month-event-1.1096285|archive-date=September 26, 2014|url-status=live}}</ref>
Skyscrapers in Jersey City, one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the world<ref name=DiverseJC1>{{cite news|url=http://www.nj.com/hudson/index.ssf/2015/02/jersey_city_named_most_ethnically_linguistically_d.html|title=Jersey City named most diverse city in America: report|author=Summer Dawn Hortillosa|work=The Jersey Journal|date=February 17, 2015|access-date=May 16, 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518105950/http://www.nj.com/hudson/index.ssf/2015/02/jersey_city_named_most_ethnically_linguistically_d.html|archive-date=May 18, 2015|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=DiverseJC2>{{cite web|url=http://www.movoto.com/jersey-city-nj/jersey-city-facts/|title=53 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Jersey City|author=Spencer McKee|publisher=Movoto|access-date=May 16, 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150518094715/http://www.movoto.com/jersey-city-nj/jersey-city-facts/|archive-date=May 18, 2015|url-status=live}}</ref>
Federal Courthouse in Camden, which is connected to Philadelphia via the Benjamin Franklin Bridge in the background
Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Newark, the fifth-largest cathedral in North America, is the seat of the city's Roman Catholic Archdiocese.
Temple Sharey Tefilo-Israel, in South Orange, Essex County. New Jersey is home to the second-highest Jewish American population per capita, after New York.
Swaminarayan Akshardham (Devnagari) in Robbinsville, Mercer County, inaugurated in 2014 as the world's largest Hindu temple<ref name="World'sLargestHinduTempleNJ">{{cite web|url=https://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/worlds-largest-hindu-temple-being-built-new-jersey-n166616|title=World's Largest Hindu Temple Being Built in New Jersey|author=Frances Kai-Hwa Wang|publisher=NBC News|access-date=December 3, 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161209184002/http://www.nbcnews.com/news/asian-america/worlds-largest-hindu-temple-being-built-new-jersey-n166616|archive-date=December 9, 2016|url-status=live}}</ref>
Islamic Center of Passaic County, Paterson, Passaic County, was founded in 1990. New Jersey has the largest Muslim Population in America, and Paterson which is where the Islamic Center of Passaic County is in has New Jersey's largest Muslim community which lead to South Paterson getting the nicknames "Little Istanbul" and "Little Ramallah".<ref>{{cite web |title=Muslims By State |url=https://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/religious-tradition/muslim/ |access-date=January 25, 2022 |archive-date=January 25, 2022 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220125192549/https://www.pewforum.org/religious-landscape-study/religious-tradition/muslim/ |url-status=live }}</ref>

On November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the Bill of Rights.

Rhode Island

State in the New England region of the Northeastern United States.

State in the New England region of the Northeastern United States.

In 1636, Roger Williams and his followers founded the settlement of Providence Plantations
In 1680, Newport was the third largest Anglo-American city. It remained a prosperous population center until the 1770s
Providence Revolutionaries burned HMS Gaspee in Warwick in protest of British customs laws
The United States Naval Academy was moved to Fort Adams in Newport during the Civil War
Interior of The Breakers, a Newport symbol of the Gilded Age
Downtown Providence in 2008
Topographic map of Rhode Island.
Köppen climate types of Rhode Island, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
The Rhode Island State House in Providence boasts the world's fourth largest self-supported marble dome
The Towers are a Narragansett landmark
The Block Island Wind Farm is the first commercial offshore wind farm in the United States
Rhode Island population density map
Touro Synagogue in Newport is the oldest existing synagogue building in the United States
Slater Mill in Pawtucket is cited as the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution in the United States
The Rhode Island Public Transit Authority operates a statewide system of bus transport
A southbound Northeast Regional train at Kingston Station
The Jamestown Verrazzano Bridge (foreground) and Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge (background)
The East Bay Bike Path in Riverside
University Hall at Brown University is one of the oldest academic buildings in the United States.
Many Rhode Islanders visit Washington County for its beaches
The Pawtucket Red Sox played at McCoy Stadium
1884 Baseball Champion Providence Grays
University of Rhode Island's Meade Stadium in Kingston
The International Tennis Hall of Fame in Newport
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
Map of Rhode Island, showing major cities and roads
Rocky shoreline in Newport
Ninigret Pond National Wildlife Refuge
Forest along the Blackstone River
Trustom Pond, a lagoon in South Kingstown
alt=PPAC Square in Downtown Providence|1. Providence
alt=Warwick City Hall|2. Warwick
alt=William H. Hall Free Library in Cranston|3. Cranston
alt=Old Post Office in Pawtucket|4. Pawtucket
alt=Taunton Plaza, East Providence|5. East Providence
alt=Woonsocket City Hall|6. Woonsocket
alt=Harris Mill in Coventry|7. Coventry
alt=Cumberland Town Hall|8. Cumberland
alt=Greystone Mills in North Providence|9. North Providence
alt=Kingston Free Library|10. South Kingstown
alt=Clemence-Irons House in Johnston|11. Johnston
alt=Memorial in West Warwick|12. West Warwick
alt=Old Narragansett Church in Wickford|13. North Kingstown
alt=Old Colony House in Newport|14. Newport
alt=Downtown Westerly|15. Westerly

It was also the last of the thirteen colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, and only under threat of heavy trade tariffs from the other former colonies and after assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution.

Exclusionary rule

Legal rule, based on constitutional law, that prevents evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights from being used in a court of law.

Legal rule, based on constitutional law, that prevents evidence collected or analyzed in violation of the defendant's constitutional rights from being used in a court of law.

The exclusionary rule is grounded in the Fourth Amendment in the Bill of Rights, and it is intended to protect citizens from illegal searches and seizures.

View of Federal Hall in 2019

Federal Hall

Historic building at 26 Wall Street in the Financial District of Manhattan in New York City.

Historic building at 26 Wall Street in the Financial District of Manhattan in New York City.

View of Federal Hall in 2019
Federal Hall, Seat of Congress, 1790 hand-colored engraving by Amos Doolittle, depicting Washington's April 30, 1789, inauguration
Archibald Robertson's View up Wall Street with City Hall (Federal Hall) and Trinity Church, New York City, from around 1798
In the Wall Street bombing of 1920, the Subtreasury received no damage.
Congress convenes for a special session at Federal Hall National Memorial on September 6, 2002
George Washington, 1882, by John Quincy Adams Ward, in front of Federal Hall National Memorial
Main hall of the memorial
Issue of 1957
View from north
The George Washington Inaugural Bible, on which Washington took his inaugural oath in 1789
Brass relief of Washington kneeling in prayer
Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance and the establishment of the state of Ohio

His acquittal on the grounds that the material he had printed was true established freedom of the press as it was later defined in the Bill of Rights.

Northwest Territory (1787)

Northwest Ordinance

Organic act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.

Organic act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States.

Northwest Territory (1787)
Map of the states and territories of the United States as it was on August 7, 1789, when the Northwest Territory was organized

The natural rights provisions of the ordinance foreshadowed the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

Roger Sherman

Early American statesman, lawyer, and a Founding Father of the United States.

Early American statesman, lawyer, and a Founding Father of the United States.

The Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull (1819) depicts the Committee of Five presenting its work to Congress. Sherman is second from the left.
Foundation of the American Government. Roger Sherman is closest behind Morris, who is signing the Constitution. 1925 painting by John Henry Hintermeister.
The Committee of Five, including Sherman, is depicted on the pediment of the Jefferson Memorial in a sculpture by Adolph Alexander Weinman.

Sherman is also known for his stance against paper money with his authoring of Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution and his later opposition to James Madison over the Bill of Rights.