United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressionalCongressmanUS CongressU.S. congressionalCongress of the United StatesThe CongressU.S. CongressmanCongresses
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.wikipedia
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United States House of Representatives

U.S. RepresentativeU.S. House of RepresentativesUnited States Representative
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper house.

United States Capitol

U.S. CapitolCapitolCapitol Building
The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States.

Federal government of the United States

United States governmentU.S. governmentfederal government
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, and consists of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U.S. Constitution in the Congress, the president and the federal courts, respectively.

Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members.
As it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
The Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation.
Its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress (Article One); the executive, consisting of the president (Article Two); and the judicial, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts (Article Three).

Article One of the United States Constitution

Article IArticle OneU.S. Const. art. I
Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.

United States Census

U.S. CensuscensusUS Census
Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
The United States Census (plural censuses or censi) is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States... according to their respective Numbers... . The actual Enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years".

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
States and their residents are represented in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances.

American Samoa

America SamoaSamoaAS
The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members.
In 1930, the U.S. Congress sent a committee to investigate the status of American Samoa, led by Americans who had a part in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Congress

Congressionalcongressescongressional system
The term Congress can also refer to a particular meeting of the legislature.
Subsequent to the use of congress as the name for the legislature of the U.S. federal government (beginning in 1789), the term has been adopted by many nations to refer to their national legislatures.

Congress of the Confederation

Confederation CongressCongressContinental Congress
The Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation.
The Congress of the Confederation was succeeded by the Congress of the United States as provided for in the new Constitution of the United States, proposed September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia and adopted by the United States in 1788.

Impeachment in the United States

impeachmentimpeachedimpeach
The House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases.
Several commentators have suggested that Congress alone may decide for itself what constitutes a "high Crime or Misdemeanor", especially since the Supreme Court decided in Nixon v. United States that it did not have the authority to determine whether the Senate properly "tried" a defendant.

United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of Rights
With the passage of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, the anti-federalist movement was exhausted.
Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raised by Anti-Federalists, the Bill of Rights amendments add to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings, and explicit declarations that all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
Government powerlessness led to the Convention of 1787 which proposed a revised constitution with a two–chamber or bicameral congress.
The most contentious disputes revolved around the composition and election of the Senate as the upper legislative house of a bicameral Congress; whether "proportional representation" was to be defined by a state's geography or by its population, and whether slaves were to be counted; whether to divide the executive power among three people or vest the power in a single chief executive to be called the President; how a president would be elected, for what term, and whether to limit each president to a single term in office; what offenses should be impeachable; the nature of a fugitive slave clause, and whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade; and whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or the executive.

Guam

Territory of GuamGUGuamanian
The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members.
Approximately 1,000 people died during the occupation, according to later Congressional committee testimony in 2004.

Northern Mariana Islands

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana IslandsNorthern MarianasNorthern Marianas Islands
The House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members.
The Northern Mariana Islands does not have voting representation in the United States Congress, but, since 2009, has been represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by a delegate who may participate in debate but may not vote on the floor.

Democratic Party (United States)

DemocraticDemocratDemocratic Party
Although not legally mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are typically affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only rarely with a third party or independents.
In 2018, Democratic congressional candidate Tom Malinowski, who was later elected, described the party:

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Federalists and anti-federalists jostled for power in the early years as political parties became pronounced, surprising the Constitution's Founding Fathers of the United States.
The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution and the replacement of the Continental Congress with the United States Congress.

Conservative coalition

coalitionconservative Congress
During this time, Republicans and conservative southern Democrats formed the Conservative Coalition.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative (mostly Southern) wing of the Democratic Party.

New Deal

The New DealHundred Days Congressfirst hundred days
The Great Depression ushered in President Franklin Roosevelt and strong control by Democrats and historic New Deal policies.
New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

National Archives and Records Administration

National ArchivesU.S. National ArchivesNARA
The historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, which is a part of the National Archives and Records Administration.
Congress created the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States serving as chief administrator.

Judicial review in the United States

judicial reviewstruck downreview
John Marshall, 4th chief justice of the Supreme Court, empowered the courts by establishing the principle of judicial review in law in the landmark case Marbury v. Madison in 1803, effectively giving the Supreme Court a power to nullify congressional legislation.
Two landmark decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court served to confirm the inferred constitutional authority for judicial review in the United States: In 1796, Hylton v. United States was the first case decided by the Supreme Court involving a direct challenge to the constitutionality of an act of Congress, the Carriage Act of 1794 which imposed a "carriage tax".

Lobbying in the United States

lobbyinglobbyistlobbyists
Lobbying became a big factor despite the 1971 Federal Election Campaign Act.
Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates, often lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress.